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Seasoned punters will find calculating odds to be second nature but for beginners the prospect of getting to grips with what odds mean and in particular grappling with fractional odds can be a daunting one. Even if you're an experienced punter this Masterclass on understanding odds offers you the chance to refresh your thinking on identifying value based on the implied probability of odds. Traditionally, odds in the UK are expressed as a fraction. These odds can be used to calculate your net profit excluding your stake and although they seem complicated the method of calculation is relatively straightforward. This is best explained using an example. So whatever your stake is you can multiply it by 1.

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BINARY OPTIONS WATCHDOG VIRNETX NEWS

The model, originally due to Parks and Ahzi o , was further developed in the light of the concept of Continuum Damage Mechanics to consider the original microstructure, the particular irreversible rearrangements, and the deformation mechanisms. Damage mechanics has been a matter of intensive research by many authors, yet it has not been introduced to the micromodelling of semicrystalline polymeric materials such as polyethylene.

Regarding the material representation, the microstructure is simplified as an aggregate of randomly oriented and perfectly bonded crystals. To simulate large deformations, the new constitutive model attempts to take into account existence of intracrystalline microcracks. The second part of the work presents the theoretical formulation and numerical implementation of a three-dimensional constitutive model for the mechanical.

The influence of various test meals and fluid volumes on the relative bioavailability of commercial formulations of doxycycline hyclate and tetracycline hydrochloride was studied in healthy human volunteers. The reduction of tetracycline serum levels will likely be of clinical significance. The bioavailability of each drug was almost identical from an oral solution and from capsules in fasted subjects.

The rate of doxycycline absorption was reduced when capsules were administered with a small volume of water, but the overall efficiency of absorption of both drugs was essentially independent of co-administered fluid volume. The use of 8-h serum data provides a reliable estimate of drug bioavailability for tetracycline and, to a lesser extent, for doxycycline. OK versus doxycycline for treatment of macrocystic lymphatic malformations.

A variety of sclerotherapy agents are used to treat macrocystic lymphatic malformations LMs. This retrospective study at a single institution was performed to compare the outcomes of pediatric macrocystic LMs of the head and neck that were treated with doxycycline or with OK The outcomes measured included early response to therapy, number of treatments required, operating room time, and adverse events.

The average operating room time for a single OK injection was significantly shorter than that for doxycycline OK and doxycycline are both effective sclerosants for the treatment of predominantly macrocystic LMs. The administration time for OK is shorter than that for doxycycline , but OK required more treatments overall to achieve clinical success. Early adverse events were more common in OKtreated patients, but longer follow-up is necessary to determine whether rates of recurrence and adverse events are similar, particularly in light of the risk of tooth discoloration in doxycycline -treated patients.

Polyethylene wear debris in modular acetabular prostheses. The longevity of total hip arthroplasty has brought forth the recognition of aseptic loosening of prosthetic components as the leading cause of implant failure. Modularity of implants, although a significant improvement in versatility, may increase debris formation, a recognized cause of implant failure. This study was designed to measure the relative motion, and to assess the polyethylene wear debris production at the interface between the metal acetabular shell and the back side of the polyethylene liner, in modular hip prostheses.

Results showed that there were marked differences in the security of the acetabular shell and polyethylene liner locking mechanism, wear pattern, damage sites, and amount of polyethylene debris on the acetabular shell and polyethylene liner surfaces. The range of polyethylene liner motion observed among the 5 models during 1 cycle of testing varied from an average of 0. Image and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed different wear patterns and a wide range in the average polyethylene liner surface wear area 0.

In general, a stable locking mechanism and a smooth acetabular shell surface are essential in minimizing polyethylene liner wear and polyethylene debris production. Metabolomic profiling of doxycycline treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Serum metabolic profiling can identify the metabolites responsible for discrimination between doxycycline treated and untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and explain the possible effect of doxycycline in improving the disease conditions.

A clear metabolic differentiation was apparent between the pre and post doxycycline treated group. The distinguishing metabolites lactate and fatty acids were significantly down-regulated and formate, citrate, imidazole and l-arginine upregulated. Lactate and folate are further validated biochemically. Metabolic changes, such as decreased lactate level, inhibited arginase activity and lowered fatty acid level observed in COPD patients in response to add-on doxycycline treatment, reflect the anti-inflammatory action of the drug.

Doxycycline as a possible therapeutic option for COPD seems promising. Doxycycline improves clinical outcomes during cystic fibrosis exacerbations. Matrix metalloprotease-9 MMP-9 plays a role in progression of cystic fibrosis, and doxycycline can reduce MMP-9 in vitro Here, we explore the effect of doxycycline during cystic fibrosis exacerbation treatment on MMP-9 related readouts and clinical end-points.

This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled hospitalised patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing exacerbation. In total, 20 participants were given doxycycline and 19 participants were given placebo over an 8-day period during hospitalisation. Biospecimens were collected at the beginning and the end of the study period.

Nonparametric testing was used for within-group and between-group analyses. Doxycycline was well tolerated, with no treatment discontinuations or serious adverse events. Doxycycline reduced total sputum MMP-9 levels by Improvement in clinical outcome measures suggests an important therapeutic benefit of doxycycline for individuals with cystic fibrosis. Walker, Naomi F. Rationale: Tuberculosis kills more than 1. In advanced HIV infection, tissue destruction is reduced, but underlying mechanisms are poorly defined and no current antituberculous therapy reduces host tissue damage.

Methods: Concentrations of MMPs and cytokines were analyzed by Luminex array in a prospectively recruited cohort of patients. Modulation of MMP secretion and Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by doxycycline was studied in primary human cells and TB-infected guinea pigs. MMPs correlated with clinical markers of tissue damage, further implicating dysregulated protease activity in TB-driven pathology.

In contrast, cytokine concentrations were no different. Doxycycline , a licensed MMP inhibitor, suppressed TB-dependent MMP-1 and -9 secretion from primary human macrophages and epithelial cells by inhibiting promoter activation.

In the guinea pig model, doxycycline reduced lung TB colony forming units after 8 weeks in a dose-dependent manner compared with untreated animals, and in vitro doxycycline inhibited mycobacterial proliferation. Doxycycline decreases MMP activity in a cellular model and suppresses mycobacterial growth in vitro and in guinea pigs. Adjunctive doxycycline therapy may reduce morbidity and mortality in TB. Efficacy of Doxycycline in the Treatment of Syphilis.

Doxycycline is an alternative antibiotic drug for the treatment of syphilis, but data on its efficacy, especially data on its efficacy against late latent syphilis, are limited. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of doxycycline for the treatment of patients with different stages of syphilis.

Patients who received doxycycline treatment between June and June were involved. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the serological response. During the study period, a total of syphilis patients were treated with doxycycline , and patients completed doxycycline treatment and the month follow-up.

Among the patients, the serological response rate at 12 months was The total serological response rates were In multivariate analysis, patients who serologically responded at 12 months following treatment were positively associated with a higher baseline TRUST titer and an earlier syphilis stage than nonresponders.

Our study showed excellent treatment outcomes in patients with different stages of syphilis. Our data, along with those from other reports, support the usage of doxycycline as a good alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of syphilis. Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline effects on osteopenic bone loss: microbiologic results. Based on microbiologic concerns, the safety of a month regimen of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline SDD; 20 mg twice a day was evaluated in postmenopausal osteopenic women with periodontitis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

Up to five different colonial morphologies were subcultured from the doxycycline medium, identified to species, and susceptibilities determined to doxycycline and five other antibiotics. Data were analyzed for microbial differences in total colony forming units CFU , periodontal and opportunistic pathogens, and changes in species and in susceptibilities of isolates recovered on doxycycline medium.

Likewise, periodontal pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, or normal flora did not differ descriptively between groups. No antimicrobial effect on the subgingival flora was detected following treatment with SDD for 24 months, relative to baseline or to placebo. The evaluation of doxycycline controlled release gel versus doxycycline controlled release implant in the management of periodontitis. Background: Investigators have sought different methods to deliver antimicrobials to periodontal pockets.

This study was designed to assess the efficacy of locally made doxycycline gel versus locally made doxycycline implant as biodegradable controlled local delivery systems, by evaluating the pharmacological drug release and improvement in gingival status, gain in attachment, and reduction in pocket depth. The first group received the doxycycline gel, the second the doxycycline implant, and the third received only scaling and root planing the control group.

The patients in the first two groups were selected for the drug release. Clinical parameters such as gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, and attachment levels were recorded at baseline and the 90th day. Gingival crevicular fluid GCF and saliva samples were collected 1 hour following gel and implant placement and then on the 10th, 30th, and 60th days.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the release of doxycycline from the gel when compared with the implant in the GCF and saliva on the 10th and 30th days. All the three groups showed improvement in clinical parameters. The improvements in both gel and implant groups were greater when compared with the control group with no statistically significant difference between the implant and gel systems.

Conclusion: The use of local delivery of doxycycline through gel and Implant media further enhances the positive changes obtained following scaling and root planing. The release of doxycycline from the implant and the gel was comparable. Formulation and characterization of poly ethylene glycol -based, 5-aminolevulinic acid- loaded solid-dosage forms intended for photodynamic and photodiagnostic methodologies in the colorectal region.

Aminolevulinic acid- loaded , poly ethylene glycol disks prepared using three molecular weights , , and 10, were shown to be of potential for rectal administration as part of photodynamic and photodiagnostic colorectal procedures. The disk-shaped delivery system was mechanically robust, as judged by friability measurements. The molecular weight of the PEG determined the melting temperature, with PEG being suitable for melting around body temperature.

The drug release kinetics were shown to be a function of both molecular weight and drug loading. Although the higher molecular weight PEG disks were resistant to surface erosion arising from an aqueous receptor phase, this effect was counterbalanced by more rapid and complete release when the ALA loading was increased.

Results suggest that this simple formulation containing ALA can be administered directly to the colorectal area and is a feasible alternative to peroral dosing of ALA. Lipopolysaccharide LPS is known to induce vascular derangements.

The pathophysiology involved therein is unknown, but matrix metalloproteinases MMPs may be an important mediator. We hypothesized that in vitro LPS provokes vascular permeability, damages endothelial structural proteins, and increases MMP activity; that in vivo LPS increases permeability and fluid requirements; and that the MMP inhibitor doxycycline mitigates such changes.

Rat lung microvascular endothelial cells were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS plus doxycycline , and doxycycline. Mesenteric postcapillary venules were observed. Blood pressure was measured as animals were resuscitated and fluid requirements were compared. In vitro LPS increased permeability, damaged adherens junctions, induced actin stress fiber formation, and increased MMP-9 enzyme activity.

During resuscitation, significantly more fluid was necessary to maintain normotension in the IV LPS group. Doxycycline mitigated all derangements observed. We conclude that LPS increases permeability, damages structural proteins, and increases MMP-9 activity in endothelial cells.

Additionally, endotoxemia induces hyperpermeability and increases the amount of IV fluid required to maintain normotension in vivo. Doxycycline mitigates such changes both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings illuminate the possible role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathophysiology of lipopolysaccharide-induced microvascular hyperpermeability and pave the way for better understanding and treatment of this process.

Federal Register , , , , Synthesis, self-assembly, and drug- loading capacity of well-defined cyclodextrin-centered drug-conjugated amphiphilic A 14 B 7 Miktoarm star copolymers based on poly epsilon-caprolactone and poly ethylene glycol. Novel drug-conjugated amphiphilic A 14 B 7 miktoarm star copolymers composed of 14 poly epsilon-caprolactone PCL arms and 7 poly ethylene glycol PEG arms with beta-cyclodextrin beta-CD as core moiety were synthesized by the combination of controlled ring-opening polymerization CROP and "click" chemistry.

These amphiphilic miktoarm star copolymers could self-assemble into multimorphological aggregates in aqueous solution, which were characterized by dynamic light scattering DLS and transmission electron microscopy TEM. Moreover, the drug- loading efficiency and drug-encapsulation efficiency of the drug-conjugated miktoarm star copolymers were higher than those of the corresponding non-drug-conjugated miktoarm star copolymers. Brain targeted oral delivery of doxycycline hydrochloride encapsulated Tween 80 coated chitosan nanoparticles against ketamine induced psychosis: behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and histological alterations in mice.

To develop statistically optimized brain targeted Tween 80 coated chitosan nanoparticulate formulation for oral delivery of doxycycline hydrochloride for the treatment of psychosis and to evaluate its protective effect on ketamine induced behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and histological alterations in mice.

The optimized formulation was characterized by particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared, Transmission electron microscopy analysis and drug release behavior. The underlying mechanism of action was further confirmed by behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical estimations and histopathological study.

This study demonstrates the hydrophilic drug doxycycline hydrochloride, loaded in Tween 80 coated chitosan nanoparticles, can be effectively brain targeted through oral delivery and therefore represents a suitable approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. A major challenge for tissue engineering is to design and to develop a porous biocompatible scaffold, which can mimic the properties of natural tissue.

As a first step towards this endeavour, we here demonstrate a distinct methodology in biomimetically synthesized porous high-density polyethylene scaffolds. Co-extrusion approach was adopted, whereby high-density polyethylene was melt mixed with polyethylene oxide to form an immiscible binary blend. Selective dissolution of polyethylene oxide from the biphasic system revealed droplet-matrix-type morphology. An attempt to stabilize such morphology against thermal and shear effects was made by the addition of polyethylene - grafted-maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer.

Doxycycline has significant neuroprotective effect with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity. Furthermore, doxycycline analogue minocycline also had similar theoretically binding site on PAC1 to doxycycline and displayed corresponding. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of the most important pathogens that cause chronic respiratory disease in chicken. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of doxycycline against M. In static time—killing studies with constant antibiotic concentrations [0—64 minimum inhibitory concentration MIC ], M.

The half-life of doxycycline in chicken was 6. An in vitro dynamic model the drug concentrations are fluctuant was also established and two half-lives of 6. The samples were collected for drug concentration determination and viable counting of M. In static time—killing studies, doxycycline produced a maximum antimycoplasmal effect of 5. In the in vitro dynamic model, doxycycline had a mycoplasmacidal activity in the two regimens, and the maximum antimycoplasmal effects were 4.

In conclusion, doxycycline shows excellent effectiveness and time-dependent characteristics against M. Additionally, these results will guide optimal dosing strategies of doxycycline in M. However, because most tet-regulated mouse strains use promoters of genes expressed in multiple tissues, to achieve exclusive expression in an organ of interest is often impossible.

Indeed, in the extreme case, unwanted transgene expression in other organ systems causes lethality and precludes the study of the transgene in the actual organ of interest. Here, we describe a novel approach to activating tet-inducible transgene expression solely in the airway by administering aerosolized doxycycline. By optimizing the dose and duration of aerosolized doxycycline exposure in mice possessing a ubiquitously expressed Rosa26 promoter—driven reverse tet-controlled transcriptional activator rtTA element, we induce transgene expression exclusively in the airways.

We detect no changes in the cellular composition or proliferative behavior of airway cells. We used this newly developed method to achieve airway basal stem cell—specific transgene expression using a cytokeratin 5 also known as keratin 5 —driven rtTA driver line to induce Notch pathway activation. We observed a more robust mucous metaplasia phenotype than in mice receiving doxycycline systemically. In addition, unwanted phenotypes outside of the lung that were evident when doxycycline was received systemically were now absent.

Thus, our approach allows for rapid and efficient airway-specific transgene expression. After the careful strain by strain titration of the dose and timing of doxycycline inhalation, a suite of preexisting transgenic mice can now be used to study airway biology specifically in cases where transient transgene expression is sufficient to induce a phenotype. Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains prevalent and causes substantial reproductive morbidity.

Recent studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydia infection. We conducted a randomized trial comparing oral azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, to evaluate the noninferiority of azithromycin 1 g in one dose to doxycycline mg twice daily for 7 days. The treatment was directly observed.

The primary end point was treatment failure at 28 days after treatment initiation, with treatment failure determined on the basis of nucleic acid amplification testing, sexual history, and outer membrane protein A OmpA genotyping of C. Among the participants enrolled, were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline. There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group.

In the azithromycin group, treatment failure occurred in 5 participants 3. The observed difference in failure rates between the treatment groups was 3. The noninferiority of azithromycin was not established in this setting. Influence of load and sliding velocity on wear resistance of solid-lubricant composites of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

Doxycycline alters collagen composition following ventral hernia repair. Doxycycline , a nonspecific metalloproteinase MMP inhibitor, has been demonstrated to impact the strength of the polypropylene PP mesh-repaired hernia with an increase in the deposition of collagen type 1. The impact of doxycycline with porcine acellular dermal matrices PADM is unknown; therefore, we evaluated the impact of doxycycline administration upon hernia repair with PP and PADM mesh.

After a day recovery, animals were randomly assigned to four groups of eight and underwent intraperitoneal underlay hernia repair with either PP or PADM. There were no differences in the mesh to fascial interface tensiometric strength between groups.

Collagen type 1 deposition at the mesh to fascial interface is enhanced following administration of doxycycline in ventral hernia repairs with porcine acellular dermal matrices. Doxycycline administration may have implications for enhancing hernia repair outcomes using biologic mesh. The findings in this study demonstrate that micelles show improved dispersion, high stability, and excellent fluorescent property in aqueous solutions, suitable for targeted imaging of cancer cells with over-expressing folate receptors on their surface.

The micelles designed in this study will be a promising tool for early detection of cancer. Background Detecting a new effective and hypotoxic anticancer drug is an emerging new strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Doxycycline DC is a kind of antibiotics but also inhibits tumorigenesis. Methods MTT and cell invasion assay, flow cytometry, western-blot analysis and nude mice were used to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of doxycycline on epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

In vivo, doxycycline inhibited peritoneal tumor xenograft and decreased malignant ascites. Conclusion Doxycycline not only has an inhibitory effect on ovarian cancer, but also can increase sensitivity to cisplatin. Thermodynamic studies of iron chelation with doxycycline in acidic medium. Doxycycline DOX is a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic synthetically derived from oxytetracycline.

The complex formation of this drug with iron III was studied using spectrophotometry. The thermodynamic parameters of the systems were calculated using the changes in the absorption spectra which occur due to hydrogen bond or complex formation. The obtained data show that the complex has metal to ligand molar ratio of 1: 2 at pH The stability constants were calculated to be This process has shown promise in this treatment thanks mainly to the fact that the waste did not show any relevant inhibitory effect on the test organism and no cytotoxicity to L cells, thus demonstrating that the antibiotic properties were inactivated.

Evaluation of safety of lipomer doxycycline hydrochloride lipomer DH. The nanoparticulate formulation of lipomer doxycycline hydrochloride lipomer DH has been synthesized for the treatment of Brucellosis to increase efficacy of the drug. The present study was undertaken to determine the intravenous safety of blank lipomer and Lipomer DH in terms of maximum tolerated dose in rats. Doxycycline reduces nitric oxide production in guinea pig inner ears.

However, even in the case of low-dose intratympanic application, gentamicin might contribute to a pathological NO-increase leading to cochlear damage and hearing impairment. The study was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide NO reducing capacity of doxycycline in the inner ear after NO-induction by gentamicin. The auditory brainstem responses ABRs were recorded prior to application and 3, 5 and 7 days afterwards.

The organ of Corti and the lateral wall of 42 animals were isolated after 7 days and incubated separately for 6h in cell culture medium. Doxycycline was adjusted to organ cultures of 5 animals. As controls, seven animals received no further substance except gentamicin. The NO-production was quantified by chemiluminescence. Additional six gentamicin-treated animals were used for immunohistochemical studies. The ABRs declined continuously from the first to the seventh day after gentamicin application.

The application of doxycycline might offer a new therapeutic approach to prevent NO-induced cochlea damage through ototoxic substances. Effect of cathodic polarization on coating doxycycline on titanium surfaces. Cathodic polarization has been reported to enhance the ability of titanium based implant materials to interact with biomolecules by forming titanium hydride at the outermost surface layer.

Although this hydride layer has recently been suggested to allow the immobilization of the broad spectrum antibiotic doxycycline on titanium surfaces, the involvement of hydride in binding the biomolecule onto titanium remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of the influence this immobilization process has on titanium surfaces, mirror-polished commercially pure titanium surfaces were cathodically polarized in the presence of doxycycline and the modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and angle-resolved X-ray spectroscopy.

We demonstrated that no hydride was created during the polarization process. Doxycycline was found to be attached to an oxide layer that was modified during the electrochemical process. A bacterial assay using bioluminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis Xen43 showed the ability of the coating to reduce bacterial colonization and planktonic bacterial growth. Tear film concentrations of doxycycline following oral administration in ophthalmologically normal dogs. Doxycycline was administered 1 hour prior to feeding.

Tear samples were collected from days 1 through 10 approximately 3 hours after the morning dose was administered. Following a 3-week washout period, dogs received the alternative dose in the same conditions. Doxycycline concentration in tear samples from 1 eye same eye used for both sessions was measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared between the 2 doxycycline doses.

Concentrations differed significantly with time, but this difference was not influenced by dose, dose order, or eye. Dose had no significant effect on tear film concentration of the drug. Doxycycline , a synthetically derived tetracycline, is a partially efficacious causal prophylactic liver stage of Plasmodium drug and a slow acting blood schizontocidal agent highly effective for the prevention of malaria. When used in conjunction with a fast acting schizontocidal agent, it is also highly effective for malaria treatment.

Doxycycline is especially useful as a prophylaxis in areas with chloroquine and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although not recommended for pregnant women and children doxycycline. This report examines the evidence behind current recommendations for the use of doxycycline for malaria and summarizes the available literature on its safety and tolerability. Effect of iron ion on doxycycline photocatalytic and Fenton-based autocatatalytic decomposition.

This highlights the autocatalytic profile of doxycycline degradation. Ferric iron reduction in the presence of doxycycline relied on doxycycline -to-Fe III complex formation with an ensuing reductive release of Fe II. The quantum yield of doxycycline in direct UV-C photolysis was 3.

Acidic reaction media pH 3. Thus, factors such as doxycycline 's ability to form complexes with ferric iron and the ability of complexes to participate in a reductive pathway should be considered at a technological level in process optimization, with chemistry based on iron ion catalysis to enhance the doxycycline oxidative pathway.

Doxycycline inhibits leukemic cell migration via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase. Doxycycline , a tetracycline-based antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate melanoma cell migration through inhibiting the focal adhesion kinase FAK signaling pathway. However, it remains to be elucidated whether doxycycline exerts this effect on leukemia cell migration. The present study aimed to examine the role of doxycycline in leukemia cell migration.

Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to further understand the influence of doxycycline treatment on the expression of FAK and gelatinases in the KG1a and K leukemic cell lines. In addition, FAK protein expression and phosphorylation were determined using western blot analysis in order to investigate the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibited leukemic cell migration.

The results revealed that doxycycline treatment significantly attenuated the migration of KG1a and K cells, which was demonstrated to be associated with inhibition of the expression and phosphorylation of FAK. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that doxycycline attenuated leukemic cell migration through inhibiting the FAK signaling pathway. Therefore, doxycycline may have potential for use as a novel strategy for the treatment of leukemia. Doxycycline is the preferred recommended second-line treatment for the treatment of early syphilis.

Recent reports showed a declining efficacy trend of doxycycline in treatment of early syphilis. The aim of our study was to assess the serological response to the treatment for early syphilis with doxycycline compared with benzathine penicillin G and evaluate whether doxycycline is still an effective agent for the treatment of early syphilis.

A record-based retrospective study was conducted. Patients were diagnosed with early syphilis in an sexually transmitted disease STD clinic from January 1, to December 31, They were treated with a single dose of benzathine penicillin G 2. Pearson's chi-squared test was used for data analysis. The serological responses at 6 months and 12 months after treatment were compared. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups at 6 months Doxycycline is still an effective agent for the treatment of early syphilis.

Revisiting doxycycline in pregnancy and early childhood--time to rebuild its reputation? Doxycycline is highly effective, inexpensive with a broad therapeutic spectrum and exceptional bioavailability. However these benefits have been overshadowed by its classification alongside the tetracyclines - class D drugs, contraindicated in pregnancy and in children under 8 years of age. Doxycycline -treatable diseases are emerging as leading causes of undifferentiated febrile illness in Southeast Asia.

The emerging evidence for these important doxycycline -treatable diseases prompted us to revisit doxycycline usage in pregnancy and childhood. A systematic review of the available literature on doxycycline use in pregnant women and children revealed a safety profile of doxycycline that differed significantly from that of tetracycline; no correlation between the use of doxycycline and teratogenic effects during pregnancy or dental staining in children was found.

The change of the US FDA pregnancy classification scheme to an evidence-based approach will enable adequate evaluation of doxycycline in common tropical illnesses and in vulnerable populations in clinical treatment trials, dosage-optimization pharmacokinetic studies and for the empirical treatment of undifferentiated febrile illnesses, especially in pregnant women and children. The increased abundance and activity of cathelicidin and kallikrein 5 KLK5 , a predominant trypsin-like serine protease TLSP in the stratum corneum, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rosacea, a disorder treated by the use of low-dose doxycycline.

Here we hypothesized that doxycycline can inhibit activation of tryptic KLKs through an indirect mechanism by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases MMPs in keratinocytes. The capacity of doxycycline to directly inhibit enzyme activity was measured in surface collections of human facial skin and extracts of cultured keratinocytes by fluorescence polarization assay against fluorogenic substrates specific for MMPs or TLSPs.

Doxycycline did inhibit MMP activity but did not directly inhibit serine protease activity against a fluorogenic substrate specific for TLSPs. Furthermore, doxycycline under these conditions inhibited the generation of the cathelicidin peptide LL from its precursor protein hCAP18, a process dependent on KLK activity.

These results demonstrate that doxycycline can prevent cathelicidin activation, and suggest a previously unknown mechanism of action for doxycycline through inhibiting generation of active cathelicidin peptides.

Doxycycline assay hair samples for testing long-term compliance treatment. Many patients undergoing long-term doxycycline treatment do not regularly take their treatment because of photosensitivity. Our objective was to create an assay for determining doxycycline levels and to use hair samples for monitoring the compliance over a longer period of time.

We tested sera and hair samples from patients treated with doxycycline by a suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography UHPLC based assay. We estimated that the speed of hair growth is roughly 1. We tested 14 patients treated with doxycycline and we found similar levels of doxycycline in the serum and the hair samples representing the last 4 months.

We detected two patients who did not have antibiotic in the hair, indicating a lack of compliance that was also confirmed by interview. Hair samples can be used to test long-term compliance in patients to explain failures or relapses. Revisiting doxycycline in pregnancy and early childhood — time to rebuild its reputation? However these benefits have been overshadowed by its classification alongside the tetracyclines — class D drugs, contraindicated in pregnancy and in children under 8 years of age.

Areas Covered: A systematic review of the available literature on doxycycline use in pregnant women and children revealed a safety profile of doxycycline that differed significantly from that of tetracycline; no correlation between the use of doxycycline and teratogenic effects during pregnancy or dental staining in children was found. Expert Opinion: The change of the US FDA pregnancy classification scheme to an evidence-based approach will enable adequate evaluation of doxycycline in common tropical illnesses and in vulnerable populations in clinical treatment trials, dosage-optimization pharmacokinetic studies and for the empirical treatment of undifferentiated febrile illnesses, especially in pregnant women and children.

New intracanal formulations containing doxycycline or chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The present study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of two new intracanal preparations against E. Thirty single-rooted human canine teeth were used. The crowns were removed and the roots were instrumented using a conventional technique. Ten teeth received no medication NM -negative control.

Microbial samples were obtained 21 days after contamination: 14 days under the effect of the intracanal medications and 7 days after replacing the medications by BHI broth. All intracanal dressings significantly reduced the number of bacterial cells in the root canal after 14 days with medication.

However, the NM group showed a significant increase of CFU in this period to similar values of the initial contamination. Background Despite recovery of hemodynamics by fluid resuscitation after hemorrhage, development of the systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes can nonetheless lead to death. Minocycline and doxycycline are tetracycline derivatives that are protective in models of hypoxic, ischemic and oxidative stress.

Our Aim was to determine whether minocycline and doxycycline protect liver and kidney and improve survival in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. For pre-plus post-treatment, drugs were administered intraperitoneally prior to hemorrhage followed by second equal dose in Ringer's solution after blood resuscitation. Blood and tissue were harvested after 6 h. Minocycline and doxycycline pre- plus post-treatment decreased creatinine similarly. Minocycline and doxycycline also decreased necrosis and apoptosis in liver and apoptosis in both liver and kidney, the latter assessed by TUNEL and caspase-3 activation.

Lastly after 4. Conclusion Minocycline and doxycycline were similarly protective when given before as after blood resuscitation and might therefore. Patients underwent full pulmonary function testing, a six-minute walk test, and quality of life assessment, as well as blood and urine sampling for quantification of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF-D levels-at baseline, as well as at 6 and 12 months after the initiation of doxycycline. The patients with mild spirometric abnormalities responded better to doxycycline.

The most common side effects were mild epigastric pain, nausea, and diarrhea. However, these benefits do not seem to be related to the MMP blockade, raising the hypothesis that there is a different mechanism of action. Plastic material is one of the most serious solid wastes pollution. More than 40 million tons of plastics produced each year are discarded into environment. Plastics accumulated in the environment is highly resistant to biodegradation and not be able to take part in substance recycle.

To increase the biodegradation efficiency of plastics by different means is the main research direction. This article reviewed the recent research works of polyethylene biodegradation that included the modification and pretreatment of polyethylene , biodegradation pathway, the relevant microbes and enzymes and the changes of physical, chemical and biological properties after biodegradation. The study directions of exploiting the kinds of life-forms of biodegradation polyethylene except the microorganisms, isolating and cloning the key enzymes and gene that could produce active groups, and enhancing the study on polyethylene biodegradation without additive were proposed.

Doxycycline affects gene expression profiles in aortic tissues in a rat model of vascular calcification. Vitamin D 3 -induced vascular calcification VC in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with calcification occurring in human atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, thereby it is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents.

Doxycycline has been shown to effectively attenuated VC. This study aimed to explore the effects of doxycycline on gene expression profiles in VC rats. The model of VC in rats was established by subcutaneous injection of vitamin D3 for 3days. Doxycycline at mgkg -1 day -1 was given via subcutaneous injection for 14days.

Rat pathological changes, calcium deposition and calcium content in aortic tissues were measured by Hematoxylin-eosin, von Kossa staining and colorimetry, respectively. The gene change profile of aortic tissues after doxycycline treatment was assessed by Gene Microarray analysis using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Oligo Microarray.

The results showed that doxycycline significantly decreased the deposition of calcium, reduced the relative calcification area and alleviated pathological injury in aortic tissues. In addition, doxycycline treatment altered 88 gene expressions compared with untreated VD group. Of these, 61 genes were down-regulated and 27 genes were up-regulated.

The functions of differentially expressed DE genes were involved in neutrophil chemotaxis, chronic inflammatory response, negative regulation of apoptotic process, cellular response to mechanical stimulus and immune response, etc. In conclusions, this study might provide the potential novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of doxycycline on VC. Background Doxycycline DOX exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and pro-apoptotic activity and is being tested in clinical trials as a chemotherapeutic agent for several cancers, including colon cancer.

Results Doxycycline administration in DMH-treated rats DMH-DOX unexpectedly increased tumor multiplicity, stimulated progression of colonic tumor growth from adenomas to carcinomas and revealed metastasis in small intestine as determined by macroscopic and histopathological analysis.

DOX-alone treatment showed markedly enhanced chronic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia, which was dependent upon the dose of doxycycline administered. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis revealed evidence of inflammation and anti-apoptotic action of DOX by deregulation of various biomarkers. Conclusion These results suggest that doxycycline caused chronic inflammation in colon, small intestine injury, enhanced the efficacy of DMH in tumor progression and provided a mechanistic link between doxycycline -induced chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis.

Ongoing studies thus may need to focus on the molecular mechanisms of doxycycline action, which lead to its inflammatory and tumorigenic effects. A prospective double-blind study on the effects of doxycycline as a prophylactic antimicrobial in elective colonic surgery is presented. One hundred-eighteen patients were evaluated. Fifty-eight were treated and 60 were controls. Two hundred milligrams, doxycycline or placebo two capsules were given orally four to six hours prior to surgery and mg or placebo one capsule for five days postoperatively.

Doxycycline levels in serum and tissues were determined and related to the MICvalues of the contaminants of the operative field. A significantly lower incidence of abdominal wound sepsis, intra-abdominal complications, and septicemia was recorded in the doxycycline group compared to the control group, The prophylactic effect was most pronounced in patients with a negative wound culture upon closure. Macroscopical peritoneal contamination was associated with less severe consequencies in the doxycycline group.

Treatment also reduced the incidence of repeat laparotomy due to septic complications, 0 vs 8. Thus systemic per and postoperative prophylaxis with doxycycline significantly reduced both the incidence and the severity of postoperative sepsis in potentially contaminated elective colorectal surgery without any adverse reactions. A new therapeutic association to manage relapsing experimental colitis: Doxycycline plus Saccharomyces boulardii.

Immunomodulatory antibiotics have been proposed for the treatment of multifactorial conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics are able to attenuate intestinal inflammation, being considered as safe when chronically administered. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline , a tetracycline with immunomodulatory properties, alone and in association with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCMI Doxycycline was assayed both in vitro Caco-2 epithelial cells and RAW In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of the association of doxycycline and the probiotic was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a DSS model of reactivated colitis in mice.

Doxycycline displayed immunomodulatory activity in vitro, reducing IL-8 production by intestinal epithelial cells and nitric oxide by macrophages. Doxycycline treatment was also effective in reducing acute intestinal inflammation in the DSS model of mouse colitis. The association of doxycycline and S. This was evidenced by a reduced disease activity index, colonic tissue damage and expression of inflammatory mediators.

This study confirms the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and supports the potential use of its therapeutic association with S. Doxycycline concentration over time after storage in a compounded veterinary preparation.

To determine the concentration of doxycycline compounded from doxycycline hyclate tablets into liquid formulations for oral administration in veterinary species and stored for 28 days. Evaluation study. Doxycycline hyclate tablets mg crushed and mixed with a mixture of syrup and suspension vehicles for oral administration to produce 3 batches each of 2 doxycycline formulations: Doxycycline was extracted from the formulations, and concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography on days 0 date of preparation , 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and Concentrations were compared with those of a US Pharmacopeial Convention reference standard.

Formulation quality at each point was also assessed through color change, formulation consistency, and suspension uniformity. However, doxycycline concentrations had decreased dramatically by day 14 and remained low for the duration of the study period. Doxycycline concentrations on days 14, 21, and 28 were all doxycycline concentration was identified. The concentration of doxycycline , compounded from commercial tablets in the vehicles evaluated to yield doses of Since resistance of Helicobacter pylori is developing very fast all over the world, new treatment regimens for eradication are urgently needed.

To compare eradication success rate of H. English medical literature searches were conducted for regimens including doxycycline for eradication of H. Meta-analysis was performed by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. The OR for eradication success rate in a fixed model was in favor for treatment regimens with doxycycline : 1. When treatment regimens with doxycycline were compared only with treatment regimens with tetracycline, no significant difference was found in eradication success rate: OR 0.

But when treatment regimens with doxycycline were compared with treatment regimens without tetracycline, the OR in favor of doxycycline was even higher: OR 1. Thus, triple, quadruple or even high dose dual therapy with regimens containing doxycycline should be considered. Karger AG, Basel. Recently, the inclusion compound formed by doxycycline and modified CD was investigated. In the inclusion compound, the unstable site of doxycycline was protected by the hydrophobic CD cavity.

However, the guest arrangement inside CD cavity has not identified. In some situations, the correlation between protons of the guest and host in a 2D-ROESY experiment can be compatible with head and tail spatial arrangements. For sake of comparison, tetracycline inclusion compound was also studied. Objective Strategies to improve cartilage repair tissue quality after bone marrow cell-based procedures may reduce later development of osteoarthritis.

Doxycycline is inexpensive, well-tolerated, and has been shown to reduce matrix-metalloproteinases MMP and osteoarthritis progression. This study tests the hypotheses that doxycycline reduces MMP, enhances chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells hMSC , and improves in vivo cartilage repair. Rats were sacrificed at weeks and repair tissues were examined grossly and histologically.

Doxycycline exerted no negative effect on multiple measures of chondrogenesis and cartilage repair. These data support potential use of doxycycline to improve cartilage repair to delay the onset of osteoarthritis. These doxycycline effects are not associated with its antibacterial action, but mediated by direct activation of a PI3K-AKT intracellular signal.

These findings indicate doxycycline as a useful supplement for stem cell cultures, facilitating their growth and maintenance. Mende, Katrin; Beckius, Miriam L. There is concern that susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to tetracyclines may decrease due to use of antimalarial prophylaxis doxycycline.

We examined characteristics related to tetracycline resistance, including doxycycline exposure, in S. Tetracycline class resistance was determined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first S. Characterization of interaction between doxycycline and human serum albumin by capillary electrophoresis-frontal analysis. The binding of doxycycline to HSA under simulated physiological conditions pH 7.

The number of primary binding sites, binding constant and physiological protein-binding percentage were 1. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters including enthalpy change DeltaH , entropy change DeltaS and free energy change DeltaG of the reaction were obtained in order to characterize the acting forces between doxycycline and HSA. Furthermore, to better understand the nature of doxycycline -HSA binding and to get information about potential interaction with other drugs, displacement experiments were performed.

In a transssectional survey, nasal carriage of this strain was found in 2. Lymphangiogenesis is significantly involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including graft rejection, cancer metastasis and various inflammatory conditions. The inhibition of lymphangiogenesis has become a new therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we explored the anti-lymphangiogenic effects of doxycycline in inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis ILA in the cornea and the underlying mechanisms.

In the present study, mice with ILA of the cornea were treated with topical doxycycline 0. Lymphangiogenesis was quantified using corneal immunostaining of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 LYVE This observation suggests that doxycycline is a potential therapeutic agent for lymphangiogenesis-related diseases. Effects of doxycycline on local and systemic inflammation in stable COPD patients, a randomized clinical trial. Neutrophil derived myeloperoxidase MPO matrix metalloproteinases MMP's , and elastases are thought to contribute to the perpetuation of the disease.

The tetracycline analogue doxycycline has been shown to inhibit neutrophil-mediated inflammation. It was thus reasoned that doxycycline may attenuate neutrophil-mediated inflammation in COPD. In this double blind randomized controlled trial the effect of a 3-week course of doxycycline on sputum and systemic inflammatory parameters was evaluated in stable COPD patients. In order to exclude inflammation by bacterial colonisation patients must have 2 negative sputum cultures in the previous year.

The climax involves a multi-car pile-up at the entrance to the Lincoln Tunnel. Persuaded half-reluctantly to pose for Richard, her physical charms shown as fully as mores permitted soon melt away his 'strictly business' attitude, and they become lovers. But Richard, wanting his freedom, connives at her marriage to his wealthy client Baron von Merzbach Has Richard still a role to play in her life?

Peter Blood is banished to the West Indies and sold into slavery. Bishop who owns a major plantation. Life is hard for the men and for Blood as well In the midst of the celebration, Miguel, Duke of Canabil, is summoned to his commander's quarters and given the news that his father, and Admiral in the Spanish Navy, has betrayed the crown of Spain by turning his fleet over to the enemy William Kidd is already a clever, ruthless pirate when, in , he tricks the king into commissioning him as escort for a treasure ship from India.

He enlists a crew of pardoned cutthroats Of course, Kidd's intentions are treacherous. But there's more to gunner Adam Mercy than meets the eye. Josiah J. Newman is the doctor in charge of Ward 7, the neuropsychiatric ward, at an Army Air Corps hospital in Arizona.

The hospital is under-resourced and Newman scrounges what he needs with the help of his inventive staff, especially Cpl. Jake Leibowitz. The military in general is only just coming to accept psychiatric disorders as legitimate and Newman generally has 6 weeks to cure them or send them on to another facility.

When a prank goes wrong onboard an ocean liner Harvey ends up overboard and nearly drowns. Fortunately he's picked up by a fishing boat just heading out for the season. He tries to bribe the crew into returning early to collect a reward but none of them believe him. Stranded on the boat he must adapt to the ways of the fishermen and learn more about the real world. En route to New York, ships mate Gatson sexually attacks her. The Captain knocks Gatson overboard in an ensuing scuffle. A romance developing between the Captain and Miss Clark is put to the test in New York after an assault investigation uncovers the girl's questionable past.

Arriving in the rich new land, Cortez decides to switch from exploration to conquest Embroiled in continuous adventures and a romantic interlude, Pedro almost forgets he has a deadly enemy He wants to have a pass to get a job and start anew, but without a job he doesn't get a pass; and without a pass, he doesn't get a job.

He gets into the net of Prussian bureaucracy, and can't see a solution. Until he enters a small Second-Hand Shop, and sees a Prussian Uniform that fits him like a second skin Fate has it so that, to keep all sailors in peace, he shall command the ship. All accept this arrangement, even Negoro - whose resentment will add treachery to circumstances already difficult to take the ship to safe harbour. To a point the task may prove impossible Home Page.

Augh augh! Criminal International Agency sezione sterminio. Il colpo era perfetto ma Come annegare il Dr. Cosa vogliono da noi queste ragazze? Decameron n. Dove vai senza mutandine? Le luci della ribalta. Io accuso! Il lago in pericolo.

Chi giace nella mia bara? Livia una vergine per l'impero romano.

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HIGH SCHOOL MUSICAL BET ON IT WHOA

Clinical Trials NCT Whole body and local cryotherapy in restless legs syndrome: A randomized , single-blind, controlled parallel group pilot study. Treatment of restless legs syndrome RLS is primarily based on drugs. Since many patients report improvement of symptoms due to cooling their legs, we examined the efficacy of cryotherapy in RLS. After a two week baseline, the different therapies were applied three minutes daily at 6pm over two weeks, followed by a four week observation period.

Additionally, the PLM index was measured by a mobile device at the end of baseline, intervention, and follow-up. The IRLS score was chosen as primary efficacy parameter. Serious side-effects were not reported. However, the exact mode of cryotherapy needs to be established. Published by Elsevier B.

One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark. Conventional blood pressure monitoring 'usual group' continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring 'intensive group' supplemented this with frequent home blood pressure monitoring and hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

Mean day- and night-time systolic and diastolic hour ambulatory blood pressure. Change in systolic and diastolic office blood pressure and change in cardiovascular risk profile. The reductions in day- and night-time hour ambulatory blood pressure were similar usual group: 4. An intensive blood pressure monitoring strategy led to a similar blood pressure reduction to conventional monitoring. However, the intensive strategy appeared to improve patients' cardiovascular risk profile through other effects than a reduction of blood pressure.

Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals. Randomized , parallel-group , double-blind, controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbohydrate-derived fulvic acid in topical treatment of eczema. Methods: In this single-center, double-blind, placebo- controlled , parallel-group comparative study, 36 volunteers with predetermined eczema were randomly assigned to receive either the study drug or placebo twice daily for four weeks.

Results: All safety parameters remained within normal limits, with no significant differences in either group. Significant differences were observed for both severity and erythema in the placebo and CHD-FA treated groups, and a significant difference was observed for scaling in the placebo-treated group. With regard to the investigator assessment of global response to treatment, a significant improvement was observed in the CHD-FA group when compared with the placebo group.

A statistically significant decrease in visual analog scale score was observed in both groups, when comparing the baseline with the final results. Conclusion: CHD-FA was well tolerated, with no difference in reported side effects other than a short-lived burning sensation on application. CHD-FA significantly improved some aspects of eczema. Investigator assessment of global response to treatment with CHD-FA was significantly better than that with emollient therapy alone.

The results of this small exploratory study suggest that CHD-FA warrants further investigation in the treatment of eczema. Keywords: fulvic acid, eczema, anti-inflammatory, efficacy, safety. Post-discharge management following hip fracture - get you back to B4: A parallel group , randomized controlled trial study protocol. Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall-related hip fractures result in significant personal and societal consequences; importantly, up to half of older adults with hip fracture never regain their previous level of mobility.

Strategies of follow-up care for older adults after fracture have improved investigation for osteoporosis; but managing bone health alone is not enough. Prevention of fractures requires management of both bone health and falls risk factors including the contributing role of cognition, balance and continence to improve outcomes. Participants randomized to the intervention will attend a fracture follow-up clinic where a geriatrician and physiotherapist will assess and manage their mobility and other health issues.

Depending on needs identified at the clinical assessment, participants may receive individualized and group-based outpatient physiotherapy, and a home exercise program. Our primary objective is to assess the effectiveness of a novel post-discharge fracture management strategy on the mobility of older adults after hip fracture. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned to the Intervention or Usual Care groups by remote allocation.

Treatment allocation will be concealed; investigators, measurement team and primary data analysts will be blinded to group allocation. Our primary outcome is mobility. Duloxetine for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: evidence-based findings from post hoc analysis of three multicenter, randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled , parallel-group studies. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of varenicline in healthy adolescent smokers: a multicenter, randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled , parallel-group study.

The goal of this study was to characterize the multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of varenicline in adolescent smokers. The high-body-weight group consisted of 35 subjects The low-body-weight group consisted of 37 subjects The pharmacokinetic parameters of varenicline were dose proportional over the dose range from 0.

In high-body-weight subjects, steady-state varenicline exposure, as represented by the AUC , was In low-body-weight subjects, varenicline exposure was Among high-body-weight subjects, adverse events AEs were reported by Pharmacodynamic effects of steady-state fingolimod on antibody response in healthy volunteers: a 4-week, randomized , placebo- controlled , parallel-group , multiple-dose study.

Fingolimod, a first-in-class oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1PR modulator, is approved in many countries for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, at a once-daily 0. A reduction in peripheral lymphocyte count is an expected consequence of the fingolimod mechanism of S1PR modulation.

The authors investigated if this pharmacodynamic effect impacts humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In this double-blind, parallel-group , 4-week study, 72 healthy volunteers were randomized to steady state, fingolimod 0. Responder rates were identical between placebo and 0. Fingolimod did not affect anti-TT immunogenicity, and DTH response did not differ between placebo and fingolimod 0.

Expectedly, lymphocyte count reduced substantially in the fingolimod groups versus placebo but reversed by study end. Fingolimod was well tolerated, and the observed safety profile was consistent with previous reports. School-based mindfulness intervention for stress reduction in adolescents: Design and methodology of an open-label, parallel group , randomized controlled trial. Full Text Available Adolescents are in a high-risk period developmentally, in terms of susceptibility to stress.

A mindfulness intervention represents a potentially useful strategy for developing cognitive and emotion regulation skills associated with successful stress coping. Mindfulness strategies have been used successfully for emotional coping in adults, but are not as well studied in youth. This article details a novel proposal for the design of an 8-week randomized study to evaluate a high school-based mindfulness curriculum delivered as part of a two semester health class.

A wellness education intervention is proposed as an active control , along with a waitlist control condition. Pre-test assessments will be obtained by youth report, parent ratings, and on-site behavioral testing. The assessments will evaluate baseline stress, mood, emotional coping, controlled attention, and working memory.

Participants, divided into 13 classrooms, will be randomized into one of three conditions, by classroom: A mindfulness intervention, an active control wellness education, and a passive control waitlist. Waitlisted participants will receive one of the interventions in the following term. Intervention groups will meet weekly for 8 weeks during regularly scheduled health classes.

Immediate post-tests will be conducted, followed by a day post-test. It is hypothesized that the mindfulness intervention will outperform the other conditions with regard to the adolescents' mood, attention and response to stress. Daily electronic self-monitoring in bipolar disorder using smartphones - the MONARCA I trial: a randomized , placebo- controlled , single-blind, parallel group trial.

The number of studies on electronic self-monitoring in affective disorder and other psychiatric disorders is increasing and indicates high patient acceptance and adherence. Nevertheless, the effect of electronic self-monitoring in patients with bipolar disorder has never been investigated in a randomized controlled trial RCT. The objective of this trial was to investigate in a RCT whether the use of daily electronic self-monitoring using smartphones reduces depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder.

The primary outcomes were differences in depressive and manic symptoms measured using HAMD and YMRS, respectively, between the intervention and control groups. Intention-to-treat analyses using linear mixed models showed no significant effects of daily self-monitoring using smartphones on depressive as well as manic symptoms. Sub-group analysis among patients without mixed symptoms and patients with presence of depressive and manic symptoms showed significantly more depressive symptoms and fewer manic symptoms during the trial period in the intervention group.

These results highlight that electronic self-monitoring, although intuitive and appealing, needs critical consideration and further clarification before it is implemented as a clinical tool. Efficacy of topical resin lacquer, amorolfine and oral terbinafine for treating toenail onychomycosis: a prospective, randomized , controlled , investigator-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial. Norway spruce Picea abies produces resin to protect against decomposition by microbial pathogens.

To confirm previous in vivo observations that a topical resin lacquer provides mycological and clinical efficacy, and to compare this lacquer with topical amorolfine hydrochloride lacquer and systemic terbinafine for treating dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis. The primary outcome measure was complete mycological cure at 10 months. Secondary outcomes were clinical efficacy, cost-effectiveness and patient compliance.

Full Text Available Aims. To assess the effect of metformin and to compare it with insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in terms of perinatal outcome, maternal complications, additional insulin requirement, and treatment acceptability. In this randomized , open label study, patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy who met the eligibility criteria were selected from the antenatal clinics.

Insulin was added to metformin treatment when required, to maintain the target glycemic control. The patients were followed up till delivery. Maternal, and perinatal outcomes and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics were recorded on a proforma. Maternal characteristics were comparable in metformin and insulin treated group. Less maternal weight gain P24 hours in metformin group P Metformin treatment in type 2 diabetes in pregnancy: an active controlled , parallel-group , randomized , open label study in patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy.

Small for date babies were more in metformin group P 24 hours in metformin group P metformin group. Metformin alone or with add-on insulin is an effective and cheap treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number: Clinical trials. Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of a follow-up clinic on urinary incontinence UI and nocturia among older adults with hip fracture.

The B4 group received management by health professionals, with need-based referrals. UI, nocturia, and quality of life were measured with questionnaires at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Four out of five study participants reported nocturia at baseline; this did not decrease during the study. Discussion : Following hip fracture, many older adults report UI and most report nocturia. Health professionals should be aware of the high occurrence of urinary symptoms among older adults post hip fracture.

Cannabidiol CBD exhibits anti-inflammatory properties that could improve disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept study assessed efficacy, safety and tolerability of CBD-rich botanical extract in ulcerative colitis UC patients. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients in remission after treatment. Patients were less tolerant of CBD-rich botanical extract compared with placebo, taking on average one-third fewer capsules, and having more compliance-related protocol deviations principally insufficient exposure , prompting identification of a per protocol PP analysis set.

A greater proportion of gastrointestinal-related AEs, indicative of UC worsening, was seen on placebo. Although the primary endpoint was not reached, several signals suggest CBD-rich botanical extract may be beneficial for symptomatic treatment of UC. Targeting young drinkers online: the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention in reducing heavy drinking among college students: study protocol of a two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial.

Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of heavy drinking among college students and its associated health related consequences highlights an urgent need for alcohol prevention programs targeting 18 to 24 year olds. Nevertheless, current alcohol prevention programs in the Netherlands pay surprisingly little attention to the drinking patterns of this specific age group.

The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of a web-based brief alcohol intervention that is aimed at reducing alcohol use among heavy drinking college students aged 18 to 24 years old. The primary outcome measure will be the percentage of participants who drink within the normative limits of the Dutch National Health Council for low-risk drinking. These limits specify that, for heavy alcohol use, the mean consumption cannot exceed 14 or 21 glasses of standard alcohol units per week for females and males, respectively, while for binge drinking, the consumption cannot exceed five or more glasses of standard alcohol units on one drinking occasion at least once per week within one month and six months after the intervention.

Reductions in mean weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking are also primary outcome measures. Weekly Ecological Momentary Assessment will measure alcohol-related cognitions, that is, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms and alcohol expectancies, which will be included as the secondary outcome measures. Discussion This study protocol describes the two-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial developed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based brief. Isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin improve quality of life, sexual function, body composition and metabolic parameters in menopausal women: result from a prospective, randomized , placebo- controlled , parallel-group study.

Menopause results in metabolic changes that contribute to increase risk of cardiovascular diseases: increase in low density lipoprotein LDL and triglycerides and decrease in high density lipoprotein HDL , weight gain are associated with a correspondent increase in incidence of hypertension and diabetes.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of isoflavones, calcium vitamin D and inulin in menopausal women. We performed a prospective, randomized , placebo- controlled , parallel-group study. A total of 50 patients were randomized to receive either oral preparations of isoflavones 40 mg , calcium mg vitamin D UI and inulin 3 g or placebo control group. Pre- and post-treatment assessment of quality of life and sexual function were performed through Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire MENQOL and Female Sexual Function Index FSFI ; evaluations of anthropometric indicators, body composition through bioelectrical impedance analyser, lumbar spine and proximal femur T-score and lipid profile were performed.

According to our data analysis, isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin may exert favourable effects on menopausal symptoms and signs. Full Text Available This study protocol aims to explore the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of a herbal medication, Gongjindan GJD, in patients with chronic dizziness. This will be a prospective, multicenter, randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled , parallel-group , clinical trial.

Participants will be orally given 3. The primary outcome measure will be the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score. To assess safety, adverse events, including laboratory test results, will be monitored. Data will be statistically analyzed at a significance level of 0. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials. A placebo- controlled , randomized , double-blind, parallel-group , comparative, multicenter study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide BPO gel, administrated once daily for 12 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

Efficacy was evaluated by counting all inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. All subjects were randomly assigned to receive the study products 2. The median rates of reduction from baseline to the last evaluation of the inflammatory lesion counts, the primary end-point, in the 2.

No deaths or other serious adverse events were observed. The incidences of adverse events in the 2. All adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Most adverse events did not lead to study product discontinuation. The results suggested that both 2. Food and Drug Administration can set standards for cigarettes that could include reducing their nicotine content. Such a standard should improve public health without causing unintended serious consequences for sub-populations.

After a week of smoking their own cigarettes, participants receive two weeks of Spectrum research cigarettes with usual nicotine content After this baseline period, participants will be randomly assigned to continue smoking Spectrum research cigarettes that contain either a Usual Nicotine Content The primary outcome measure is blood cotinine; key secondary outcomes are: exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary total NNAL- 4- methylnitrosamino 3-pyridylbutanol and 1-hydroxypyrene, oxidative.

A review on headache and insomnia revealed that insomnia is a risk factor for increased headache frequency and headache intensity in migraineurs. The authors designed a randomized , double blind, placebo- controlled , parallel-group , pilot study in which migraineurs who also had insomnia were enrolled, to test this observation.

The treatment was preceded by a 2-week baseline period and followed by a 2-week run-out period. Of the 79 subjects treated, 75 were evaluable, 35 in the eszopiclone group, and 40 in the placebo group. At baseline, the groups were comparable except for sleep latency. The headache variables, frequency, duration, and intensity, did not show a difference from placebo during the 6-week treatment period. The study did not meet primary endpoint, that is, the difference in total sleep time during the 6-week treatment period between eszopiclone and placebo was less than 40 minutes.

Therefore, it failed to answer the question as to whether insomnia is, indeed, a risk factor for increased headache frequency and headache intensity in migraineurs. Rheumatoid arthritis RA is an autoimmune, chronic systemic inflammatory disorder.

The long-term use of currently available drugs for the treatment of RA has many potential side effects. Natural phytonutrients may serve as alternative strategies for the safe and effective treatment of RA, and curcuminoids have been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions for centuries. In this study, a novel, highly bioavailable form of curcumin in a completely natural turmeric matrix was evaluated for its ability to improve the clinical symptoms of RA.

A randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled , three-arm, parallel-group study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two different doses of curcumin with that of a placebo in active RA patients. RA patients who received the curcumin product at both low and high doses reported statistically significant changes in their clinical symptoms at the end of the study.

These observations were confirmed by significant changes in ESR, CPR, and RF values in patients receiving the study product compared to baseline and placebo. Both doses of the study product were well tolerated and without side effects. Add-on treatment with N-acetylcysteine for bipolar depression: a week randomized double-blind parallel group placebo- controlled multicentre trial NACOS-study protocol.

Oxidative stress and inflammation may be involved in the development and progression of mood disorders, including bipolar disorder. Currently, there is a scarcity of useful treatment options for bipolar depressive episodes, especially compared with the efficacy of treatment for acute mania. N-Acetylcysteine NAC has been explored for psychiatric disorders for some time given its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The current trial aims at testing the clinical effects of adjunctive NAC treatment compared to placebo for bipolar depression.

We will also explore the biological effects of NAC in this context. We hypothesize that adjunctive NAC treatment will reduce symptoms of depression, which will be reflected by changes in selected markers of oxidative stress. In the study, we will include adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder, in a currently depressive episode.

Participants will undertake a week, adjunctive, randomized , double-blinded, parallel group placebo- controlled trial comparing 3 grams of adjunctive NAC daily with placebo. The potential effects on oxidative stress by NAC treatment will be measured through urine and blood samples. DNA will be examined for potential polymorphisms related to oxidative defences.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism SHPT is a major complication associated with chronic kidney disease. The proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide Similarly, the proportion of patients meeting the major secondary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide Serum albumin-corrected calcium, phosphorus and intact fibroblast growth factor levels were decreased in the etelcalcetide group.

Nausea, vomiting and symptomatic hypocalcaemia were mild with etelcalcetide. Serious adverse events related to etelcalcetide were not observed. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide. As the only available intravenous calcium-sensing receptor agonist, etelcalcetide is likely to provide a new treatment option for SHPT in haemodialysis patients.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs , including diclofenac, are the mainstay of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment in dentistry. Diclofenac epolamine [diclofenac N- 2-hydroxyethyl pyrrolidine; DHEP] is a diclofenac salt with greater water solubility and better cutaneous absorption properties than other commonly used forms of the drug. This was a randomized , investigator-blind, parallel-group , controlled , phase III study that enrolled 80 patients with conditions affecting the oral cavity, characterized by an inflammatory component, and eligible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment.

Patients were randomized 1 : 1 to DHEP mouthwash 0. The treatment regimen was the same in both groups: 1-minute rinse with 15 mL of mouthwash, twice daily for 7 days. Visits were scheduled at study inclusion D0 , and 3 days D3 and 7 days D7 after treatment initiation.

During each visit assessments were made of pain severity using a 5-point semi-quantitative scale and a mm visual analogue scale [VAS] and inflammatory signs using a 5-point scale. The primary study endpoint was the change in pain severity scores from D0 to D3 and D7. Secondary endpoints included effects of treatment on inflammation score, quality of sleep, compliance with treatment and the safety and tolerability of treatment.

The two treatment arms were homogeneous in terms of patient characteristics. The most prevalent oral condition was gingivitis. Overall both topical treatments were effective in alleviating pain and inflammation, as evidenced by decreases in pain and. Phase 1, randomized , parallel-group , double-blind, placebo- controlled trial to evaluate the effects of erenumab AMG and concomitant sumatriptan on blood pressure in healthy volunteers.

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effects of concomitant administration of erenumab and sumatriptan on resting blood pressure, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability in healthy subjects. Blood pressure was measured pre-dose and at prespecified times post-dose.

The primary endpoint was individual time-weighted averages of mean arterial pressure, measured from 0 hours to 2. Adverse events and anti-erenumab antibodies were also evaluated. Results A total of 34 subjects were randomized and included in the analysis. Least squares mean standard error time-weighted averages of mean arterial pressure were Mean difference in mean arterial pressure between groups was Geometric mean ratio estimates for maximum plasma concentration of sumatriptan was 0.

No clinically relevant safety findings for co-administration of sumatriptan and erenumab were identified. Conclusion Co-administration of erenumab and sumatriptan had no additional effect on resting blood pressure or on pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan. Chronic low back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. The combination of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in an extended-release formulation has been shown to provide rapid and long-lasting analgesic effects resulting from the synergistic activity of these 2 active ingredients.

Secondary end points included quality of life Korean Short Form , functionality Korean Oswestry Disability Index , and adverse events. Patients in the TA-ER group had significant improvements versus placebo in role-physical, general health, and reported health transition domains of the Korean Short Form and significantly higher functional improvements in the personal care section of the Korean Oswestry Disability Index.

Patient assessment of overall pain control as "very good" was also significantly higher with TA-ER than with placebo. Adverse events were reported more frequently with TA-ER than with placebo; the most common adverse events reported were nausea, dizziness, constipation, and vomiting. TA-ER was significantly more. The efficacy and safety of lixivaptan in outpatients with heart failure and volume overload: results of a multicentre, randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled , parallel-group study.

Volume overload is the dominant feature of decompensated heart failure HF and it often results in adverse clinical outcomes. Vasopressin receptor antagonists such as lixivaptan may provide effective volume unloading. This study assessed weight loss after 1 day and 8 weeks of treatment with lixivaptan in outpatients with HF and volume overload.

This phase II, 8-week, multicentre, double-blind, parallel-group study randomized participants to receive lixivaptan mg or placebo once daily in addition to standard HF therapy. Body weight and cardiovascular assessments were made at baseline, Day 1 not cardiovascular , Weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8, and 7 days post-treatment.

Most Demographic characteristics were generally similar between the two groups. Body weight decreased significantly from baseline to Day 1 with lixivaptan vs. A randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled , multiple-dose, parallel-group clinical trial to assess the effects of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects. Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide GLP -2, is a novel therapy recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome who are dependent on parenteral support.

Previous studies assessing the effect of GLP-2 on gastric emptying in humans have yielded inconsistent results, with some studies showing no effect and others documenting a GLPdependent delay in gastric emptying. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects, as measured by the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. This double-blind, parallel-group , single-center study enrolled and randomized 36 healthy subjects 22 men, 14 women to receive subcutaneous doses of teduglutide 4 mg or placebo ratio; once daily on Days 1 through 10 in the morning.

Gastric emptying of a mixed nutrient liquid meal was assessed by measuring acetaminophen levels predose and at 0. The primary study endpoint was a pharmacokinetic analysis of acetaminophen absorption in subjects receiving teduglutide or placebo. No significant differences in gastric emptying of liquids acetaminophen area under the concentration [AUC] vs time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, AUC extrapolated to infinity, maximum concentration [Cmax], and time to Cmax were observed on Day 10 in subjects receiving teduglutide 4 mg versus subjects receiving placebo.

There were no serious adverse events AEs , deaths, or discontinuations due to an AE reported during the study. No unexpected safety signals were observed. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials. A prospective, randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans -based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms.

Abstract Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms abdominal pain, distention, flatulence but no gastrointestinal GI diagnoses to explain the symptoms.

Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled age Statistical power in parallel group point exposure studies with time-to-event outcomes: an empirical comparison of the performance of randomized controlled trials and the inverse probability of treatment weighting IPTW approach. Estimating statistical power is an important component of the design of both randomized controlled trials RCTs and observational studies.

Methods for estimating statistical power in RCTs have been well described and can be implemented simply. In observational studies, statistical methods must be used to remove the effects of confounding that can occur due to non- random treatment assignment. Inverse probability of treatment weighting IPTW using the propensity score is an attractive method for estimating the effects of treatment using observational data.

However, sample size and power calculations have not been adequately described for these methods. We used an extensive series of Monte Carlo simulations to compare the statistical power of an IPTW analysis of an observational study with time-to-event outcomes with that of an analysis of a similarly-structured RCT.

We examined the impact of four factors on the statistical power function: number of observed events, prevalence of treatment, the marginal hazard ratio, and the strength of the treatment-selection process. The difference in statistical power increased as the magnitude of the treatment-selection model increased. Phase 2a, randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled , multicenter, parallel-group study of a H4 R-antagonist JNJ in Japanese adults with moderate atopic dermatitis.

This trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the H4 R-antagonist JNJ in adult Japanese patients with moderate atopic dermatitis AD. Eighty-eight of planned patients were randomized before the study was stopped and unblinded for safety reasons.

The study did not meet the primary end-point. However, numerical improvements i. No deaths were reported. Except for neutropenia, no clinically relevant changes in laboratory values were observed. Although not conclusive, findings suggest H4 R-antagonism may be beneficial for AD, particularly in controlling pruritus. JNJ appears to be associated with drug-induced agranulocytosis, likely an off-target effect.

A prospective, randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms. Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms abdominal pain, distention, flatulence but no gastrointestinal GI diagnoses to explain the symptoms.

Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables.

Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials. Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms abdominal pain, distention, flatulence but no gastrointestinal GI diagnoses to explain the symptoms.

This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms abdominal pain, distention, flatulence but no gastrointestinal GI diagnoses to explain the symptoms.

Sixty-one adults were enrolled age In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Of randomized placebo, 81; LDX, 80 , were included in the safety population. The safety profile of LDX was consistent with amphetamine use in previous studies. The safety profile of LDX was similar to previous studies.

Patient education with or without manual therapy compared to a control group in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. A proof-of-principle three-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial. To investigate the effectiveness of a patient education PE program with or without the added effect of manual therapy MT compared to a minimal control intervention MCI.

In a single-center university hospital setting, a total of patients with clinical and radiographic unilateral hip osteoarthritis OA from primary care were randomized into one of three groups: PE, PE plus MT or MCI. The PE was taught by a physiotherapist involving five sessions. The MT was delivered by a chiropractor involving 12 sessions and the MCI included a home stretching program. Primary outcome was self-reported pain severity on an box numeric rating scale NRS immediately following a 6-week intervention period.

Patients were followed for 1 year. PE alone was not superior to the MCI. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Pharmacokinetic comparison of controlled -release and immediate-release oral formulations of simvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized , open-label, parallel-group , single- and multiple-dose study.

A controlled -release CR formulation of simvastatin was recently developed in Korea. The formulation is expected to yield a lower C max and similar AUC values compared with the immediate-release IR formulation. The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the new CR formulation and an IR formulation of simvastatin after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Korean subjects.

This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized , open-label, parallelgroup, 2-part study. In part I, each subject received a single dose of the CR or IR formulation of simvastatin 40 mg orally 20 mg x 2 tablets after fasting.

Blood samples were obtained for 48 hours after the dose in part I and after the first and the last dose in part II. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for both simvastatin the inactive prodrug and simvastatin acid the active moiety. An adverse event AE was defined as any unfavorable sign including an abnormal laboratory finding or symptom, regardless of whether it had a causal relationship with the study medication.

Serious AEs were defined as any events that are considered life threatening, require hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, cause persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or result in congenital abnormality, birth defect, or death.

AEs were determined based on patient interviews and physical examinations. Twenty-four healthy subjects 17 men, 7 women; mean [SD] age, 29 [7] years; age range, years were enrolled in part I, and 29 subjects 17 men, 12 women; mean age, 33 [9] years; age range, years were enrolled in part II. For simvastatin acid, C. An open, randomized , parallel-group study to compare the efficacy and safety profile of inhaled human insulin exubera with meformin as adjunctive therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled on a sulfonylurea: response to mikhail and cope.

At week To investigate the effectiveness of a patient education PE program with or without the added effect of manual therapy MT compared to a minimal control intervention MCI An open, randomized , parallel-group study to compare the efficacy and safety profile of inhaled human insulin Exubera with glibenclamide as adjunctive therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes poorly controlled on metformin.

Superficial fungal skin infections are treated using topical antifungals. Efficacy assessments included microscopy and mycologic culture, and assessing clinical signs and symptoms at baseline, and at weeks 1 and 6 after the topical treatment. All adverse events were recorded. Efficacy and safety profile of a topical methyl salicylate and menthol patch in adult patients with mild to moderate muscle strain: a randomized , double-blind, parallel-group , placebo- controlled , multicenter study.

Despite widespread use of counterirritants, including methyl salicylate and menthol, for topical pain relief, published efficacy and safety data regarding the use of the agents alone or in combination are limited. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 1 active patch or 1 placebo patch applied to the skin at the affected area ie, shoulder, upper back, upper arm, neck, calf, thigh, forearm, abdomen.

Pain intensity was assessed on a mm visual analog scale while at rest and with movement for 12 hours after patch application. The primary efficacy end point was the summed pain intensity difference score through 8 hours SPID8 with movement. Safety data, including adverse events, and secondary efficacy end points were also evaluated. A total of patients men, women; age range, years were randomized to 1 of 2 study groups in the active-patch group [mean age, Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines has shown superiority over rectal administration for terminating emergency epileptic seizures in human trials.

No such clinical trials have been performed in dogs. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intranasal midazolam IN-MDZ , via a mucosal atomization device, as a first-line management option for canine status epilepticus and compare it to rectal administration of diazepam R-DZP for controlling status epilepticus before intravenous access is available. Client-owned dogs with idiopathic or structural epilepsy manifesting status epilepticus within a hospital environment were used. Randomized parallel-group clinical trial.

Seizure cessation time and adverse effects were recorded. For each dog, treatment was considered successful if the seizure ceased within 5 minutes and did not recur within 10 minutes after administration. All dogs showed sedation and ataxia. IN-MDZ might be a valuable treatment option when intravenous access is not available and for treatment of status epilepticus in dogs at home. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and safety of an innovative passive light photon driven microscopic biomodulator patch as an alternative medical device for tinnitus relief.

Eighty-two 82 patients were randomized to receive either an active biomodulator patch or a placebo patch, for a 3-week treatment period. Patch performance evaluated with questionnaires related to tinnitus and quality-of-life and safety were assessed after 3 weeks of treatment Week 3 and at a follow-up visit 4-weeks after end of treatment Week 7. BP control rate was Three groups were generally well tolerated. Effect of physical training on urinary incontinence: a randomized parallel group trial in nursing homes.

Urinary incontinence UI is a common complaint for residents in NHs. Reduced functional ability and residence in NHs are documented to be risk factors for UI. Objective: To investigate if an individualized training program designed to improve activity of daily living ADL and physical capacity among residents in nursing homes has any impact on UI.

Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was a substudy of a Nordic multicenter study. The training program lasted for 3 months and included accommodated physical activity and ADL training. Personal treatment goals were elicited for each subject.

The control group received their usual care. The main outcome measure was UI as measured by a hour pad-weighing test. Changes were calculated from baseline to 3 months after the end of the intervention. Results: Altogether, 68 participants were included in the analysis.

Use of bibloc and monobloc oral appliances in obstructive sleep apnoea: a multicentre, randomized , blinded, parallel-group equivalence trial. The clinical benefit of bibloc over monobloc appliances in treating obstructive sleep apnoea OSA has not been evaluated in randomized trials. We hypothesized that the two types of appliances are equally effective in treating OSA. To compare the efficacy of monobloc versus bibloc appliances in a short-term perspective. In this multicentre, randomized , blinded, controlled , parallel-group equivalence trial, patients with OSA were randomly assigned to use either a bibloc or a monobloc appliance.

One-night respiratory polygraphy without respiratory support was performed at baseline, and participants were re-examined with the appliance in place at short-term follow-up. The primary outcome was the change in the apnoea-hypopnea index AHI. An independent person prepared a randomization list and sealed envelopes.

Evaluating dentist and the biomedical analysts who evaluated the polygraphy were blinded to the choice of therapy. Of patients, were randomly assigned to use the bibloc and the monobloc device; and patients, respectively, were analysed as per protocol. The mean changes in AHI were The difference of The adverse events were of mild character and were experienced by similar percentages of patients in both groups 39 and 40 per cent for the bibloc and monobloc group, respectively.

The study shows short-term results with a median time from commencing treatment to the evaluation visit of 56 days and long-term data on efficacy and harm are needed to be fully conclusive. In a short-term perspective, both appliances were equivalent in terms of their positive effects for treating OSA and caused adverse events of similar magnitude.

Registered with Clinical. Roflumilast for the treatment of COPD in an Asian population: a randomized , double-blind, parallel-group study. Roflumilast is the only oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for use in the treatment of COPD. Previous studies of roflumilast have predominantly involved European and North American populations. A large study was necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in a predominantly ethnic Chinese population.

The primary end point was change in prebronchodilator FEV1 from baseline to study end. Three hundred thirteen patients were assigned to each treatment. Roflumilast provided a sustained increase over placebo in mean prebronchodilator FEV1 0. A randomized parallel-group trial. Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention.

Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general Study Design. Randomized , parallel-group trial. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury.

Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder WAD , may develop after a forced flexion Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? Effect of a herbal extract powder YY from Imperata cylindrica Beauvois, Citrus unshiu Markovich, and Evodia officinalis Dode on body fat mass in overweight adults: a week, randomized , double-blind, placebo- controlled , parallel-group clinical trial.

YY is a herbal extract powder from Imperata cylindrica Beauvois, Citrus unshiu Markovich, and Evodia officinalis Dode, which have health promoting effects, including body fat reduction. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of YY for body fat reduction in overweight adults. All safety parameters were within normal limits; no serious adverse events occurred in either group. In a week clinical trial in overweight adults, YY resulted in significantly greater reduction in body fat vs.

Hemostatic efficacy of TachoSil in liver resection compared with argon beam coagulator treatment: An open, randomized , prospective, multicenter, parallel-group trial. The primary end point was the time to hemostasis after starting the randomized intervention to obtain secondaty hemostasis. Secondary end Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties WFDs. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group.

There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school.

The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration. This study sought to evaluate whether a contact-based workplace education program was more effective than standard mental health literacy training in promoting early intervention and support for healthcare employees with mental health issues.

A parallel-group , randomised trial was conducted with employees in 2 multi-site Ontario hospitals with the evaluators blinded to the groups. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based education programs: Beyond Silence comprising 6 in-person, 2-h sessions plus 5 online sessions co-led by employees who personally experienced mental health issues or Mental Health First Aid a standardised 2-day training program led by a trained facilitator.

An intent-to-treat analysis was completed with participants. Differences were assessed using multi-level mixed models accounting for site, group, and repeated measurement. Neither program led to significant increases in help-seeking or help-outreach behaviours. OK and doxycycline are both effective sclerosants for the treatment of predominantly macrocystic LMs. The administration time for OK is shorter than that for doxycycline , but OK required more treatments overall to achieve clinical success.

Early adverse events were more common in OKtreated patients, but longer follow-up is necessary to determine whether rates of recurrence and adverse events are similar, particularly in light of the risk of tooth discoloration in doxycycline -treated patients. Polyethylene wear debris in modular acetabular prostheses. The longevity of total hip arthroplasty has brought forth the recognition of aseptic loosening of prosthetic components as the leading cause of implant failure.

Modularity of implants, although a significant improvement in versatility, may increase debris formation, a recognized cause of implant failure. This study was designed to measure the relative motion, and to assess the polyethylene wear debris production at the interface between the metal acetabular shell and the back side of the polyethylene liner, in modular hip prostheses.

Results showed that there were marked differences in the security of the acetabular shell and polyethylene liner locking mechanism, wear pattern, damage sites, and amount of polyethylene debris on the acetabular shell and polyethylene liner surfaces. The range of polyethylene liner motion observed among the 5 models during 1 cycle of testing varied from an average of 0. Image and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed different wear patterns and a wide range in the average polyethylene liner surface wear area 0.

In general, a stable locking mechanism and a smooth acetabular shell surface are essential in minimizing polyethylene liner wear and polyethylene debris production. Metabolomic profiling of doxycycline treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Serum metabolic profiling can identify the metabolites responsible for discrimination between doxycycline treated and untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD and explain the possible effect of doxycycline in improving the disease conditions.

A clear metabolic differentiation was apparent between the pre and post doxycycline treated group. The distinguishing metabolites lactate and fatty acids were significantly down-regulated and formate, citrate, imidazole and l-arginine upregulated. Lactate and folate are further validated biochemically. Metabolic changes, such as decreased lactate level, inhibited arginase activity and lowered fatty acid level observed in COPD patients in response to add-on doxycycline treatment, reflect the anti-inflammatory action of the drug.

Doxycycline as a possible therapeutic option for COPD seems promising. Doxycycline improves clinical outcomes during cystic fibrosis exacerbations. Matrix metalloprotease-9 MMP-9 plays a role in progression of cystic fibrosis, and doxycycline can reduce MMP-9 in vitro Here, we explore the effect of doxycycline during cystic fibrosis exacerbation treatment on MMP-9 related readouts and clinical end-points. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled hospitalised patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing exacerbation.

In total, 20 participants were given doxycycline and 19 participants were given placebo over an 8-day period during hospitalisation. Biospecimens were collected at the beginning and the end of the study period. Nonparametric testing was used for within-group and between-group analyses. Doxycycline was well tolerated, with no treatment discontinuations or serious adverse events.

Doxycycline reduced total sputum MMP-9 levels by Improvement in clinical outcome measures suggests an important therapeutic benefit of doxycycline for individuals with cystic fibrosis. Walker, Naomi F. Rationale: Tuberculosis kills more than 1. In advanced HIV infection, tissue destruction is reduced, but underlying mechanisms are poorly defined and no current antituberculous therapy reduces host tissue damage. Methods: Concentrations of MMPs and cytokines were analyzed by Luminex array in a prospectively recruited cohort of patients.

Modulation of MMP secretion and Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by doxycycline was studied in primary human cells and TB-infected guinea pigs. MMPs correlated with clinical markers of tissue damage, further implicating dysregulated protease activity in TB-driven pathology. In contrast, cytokine concentrations were no different. Doxycycline , a licensed MMP inhibitor, suppressed TB-dependent MMP-1 and -9 secretion from primary human macrophages and epithelial cells by inhibiting promoter activation.

In the guinea pig model, doxycycline reduced lung TB colony forming units after 8 weeks in a dose-dependent manner compared with untreated animals, and in vitro doxycycline inhibited mycobacterial proliferation. Doxycycline decreases MMP activity in a cellular model and suppresses mycobacterial growth in vitro and in guinea pigs. Adjunctive doxycycline therapy may reduce morbidity and mortality in TB.

Efficacy of Doxycycline in the Treatment of Syphilis. Doxycycline is an alternative antibiotic drug for the treatment of syphilis, but data on its efficacy, especially data on its efficacy against late latent syphilis, are limited. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of doxycycline for the treatment of patients with different stages of syphilis. Patients who received doxycycline treatment between June and June were involved. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the serological response.

During the study period, a total of syphilis patients were treated with doxycycline , and patients completed doxycycline treatment and the month follow-up. Among the patients, the serological response rate at 12 months was The total serological response rates were In multivariate analysis, patients who serologically responded at 12 months following treatment were positively associated with a higher baseline TRUST titer and an earlier syphilis stage than nonresponders.

Our study showed excellent treatment outcomes in patients with different stages of syphilis. Our data, along with those from other reports, support the usage of doxycycline as a good alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of syphilis. Subantimicrobial dose doxycycline effects on osteopenic bone loss: microbiologic results. Based on microbiologic concerns, the safety of a month regimen of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline SDD; 20 mg twice a day was evaluated in postmenopausal osteopenic women with periodontitis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

Up to five different colonial morphologies were subcultured from the doxycycline medium, identified to species, and susceptibilities determined to doxycycline and five other antibiotics. Data were analyzed for microbial differences in total colony forming units CFU , periodontal and opportunistic pathogens, and changes in species and in susceptibilities of isolates recovered on doxycycline medium.

Likewise, periodontal pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, or normal flora did not differ descriptively between groups. No antimicrobial effect on the subgingival flora was detected following treatment with SDD for 24 months, relative to baseline or to placebo. The evaluation of doxycycline controlled release gel versus doxycycline controlled release implant in the management of periodontitis. Background: Investigators have sought different methods to deliver antimicrobials to periodontal pockets.

This study was designed to assess the efficacy of locally made doxycycline gel versus locally made doxycycline implant as biodegradable controlled local delivery systems, by evaluating the pharmacological drug release and improvement in gingival status, gain in attachment, and reduction in pocket depth.

The first group received the doxycycline gel, the second the doxycycline implant, and the third received only scaling and root planing the control group. The patients in the first two groups were selected for the drug release. Clinical parameters such as gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, and attachment levels were recorded at baseline and the 90th day.

Gingival crevicular fluid GCF and saliva samples were collected 1 hour following gel and implant placement and then on the 10th, 30th, and 60th days. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the release of doxycycline from the gel when compared with the implant in the GCF and saliva on the 10th and 30th days.

All the three groups showed improvement in clinical parameters. The improvements in both gel and implant groups were greater when compared with the control group with no statistically significant difference between the implant and gel systems. Conclusion: The use of local delivery of doxycycline through gel and Implant media further enhances the positive changes obtained following scaling and root planing.

The release of doxycycline from the implant and the gel was comparable. Formulation and characterization of poly ethylene glycol -based, 5-aminolevulinic acid- loaded solid-dosage forms intended for photodynamic and photodiagnostic methodologies in the colorectal region. Aminolevulinic acid- loaded , poly ethylene glycol disks prepared using three molecular weights , , and 10, were shown to be of potential for rectal administration as part of photodynamic and photodiagnostic colorectal procedures.

The disk-shaped delivery system was mechanically robust, as judged by friability measurements. The molecular weight of the PEG determined the melting temperature, with PEG being suitable for melting around body temperature. The drug release kinetics were shown to be a function of both molecular weight and drug loading.

Although the higher molecular weight PEG disks were resistant to surface erosion arising from an aqueous receptor phase, this effect was counterbalanced by more rapid and complete release when the ALA loading was increased. Results suggest that this simple formulation containing ALA can be administered directly to the colorectal area and is a feasible alternative to peroral dosing of ALA.

Lipopolysaccharide LPS is known to induce vascular derangements. The pathophysiology involved therein is unknown, but matrix metalloproteinases MMPs may be an important mediator. We hypothesized that in vitro LPS provokes vascular permeability, damages endothelial structural proteins, and increases MMP activity; that in vivo LPS increases permeability and fluid requirements; and that the MMP inhibitor doxycycline mitigates such changes.

Rat lung microvascular endothelial cells were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS plus doxycycline , and doxycycline. Mesenteric postcapillary venules were observed. Blood pressure was measured as animals were resuscitated and fluid requirements were compared.

In vitro LPS increased permeability, damaged adherens junctions, induced actin stress fiber formation, and increased MMP-9 enzyme activity. During resuscitation, significantly more fluid was necessary to maintain normotension in the IV LPS group. Doxycycline mitigated all derangements observed. We conclude that LPS increases permeability, damages structural proteins, and increases MMP-9 activity in endothelial cells. Additionally, endotoxemia induces hyperpermeability and increases the amount of IV fluid required to maintain normotension in vivo.

Doxycycline mitigates such changes both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings illuminate the possible role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathophysiology of lipopolysaccharide-induced microvascular hyperpermeability and pave the way for better understanding and treatment of this process. Federal Register , , , , Synthesis, self-assembly, and drug- loading capacity of well-defined cyclodextrin-centered drug-conjugated amphiphilic A 14 B 7 Miktoarm star copolymers based on poly epsilon-caprolactone and poly ethylene glycol.

Novel drug-conjugated amphiphilic A 14 B 7 miktoarm star copolymers composed of 14 poly epsilon-caprolactone PCL arms and 7 poly ethylene glycol PEG arms with beta-cyclodextrin beta-CD as core moiety were synthesized by the combination of controlled ring-opening polymerization CROP and "click" chemistry. These amphiphilic miktoarm star copolymers could self-assemble into multimorphological aggregates in aqueous solution, which were characterized by dynamic light scattering DLS and transmission electron microscopy TEM.

Moreover, the drug- loading efficiency and drug-encapsulation efficiency of the drug-conjugated miktoarm star copolymers were higher than those of the corresponding non-drug-conjugated miktoarm star copolymers. Brain targeted oral delivery of doxycycline hydrochloride encapsulated Tween 80 coated chitosan nanoparticles against ketamine induced psychosis: behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and histological alterations in mice.

To develop statistically optimized brain targeted Tween 80 coated chitosan nanoparticulate formulation for oral delivery of doxycycline hydrochloride for the treatment of psychosis and to evaluate its protective effect on ketamine induced behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and histological alterations in mice. The optimized formulation was characterized by particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared, Transmission electron microscopy analysis and drug release behavior.

The underlying mechanism of action was further confirmed by behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical estimations and histopathological study. This study demonstrates the hydrophilic drug doxycycline hydrochloride, loaded in Tween 80 coated chitosan nanoparticles, can be effectively brain targeted through oral delivery and therefore represents a suitable approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms.

A major challenge for tissue engineering is to design and to develop a porous biocompatible scaffold, which can mimic the properties of natural tissue. As a first step towards this endeavour, we here demonstrate a distinct methodology in biomimetically synthesized porous high-density polyethylene scaffolds. Co-extrusion approach was adopted, whereby high-density polyethylene was melt mixed with polyethylene oxide to form an immiscible binary blend.

Selective dissolution of polyethylene oxide from the biphasic system revealed droplet-matrix-type morphology. An attempt to stabilize such morphology against thermal and shear effects was made by the addition of polyethylene - grafted-maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. Doxycycline has significant neuroprotective effect with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity.

Furthermore, doxycycline analogue minocycline also had similar theoretically binding site on PAC1 to doxycycline and displayed corresponding. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of the most important pathogens that cause chronic respiratory disease in chicken.

This study investigated the antibacterial activity of doxycycline against M. In static time—killing studies with constant antibiotic concentrations [0—64 minimum inhibitory concentration MIC ], M. The half-life of doxycycline in chicken was 6. An in vitro dynamic model the drug concentrations are fluctuant was also established and two half-lives of 6. The samples were collected for drug concentration determination and viable counting of M.

In static time—killing studies, doxycycline produced a maximum antimycoplasmal effect of 5. In the in vitro dynamic model, doxycycline had a mycoplasmacidal activity in the two regimens, and the maximum antimycoplasmal effects were 4. In conclusion, doxycycline shows excellent effectiveness and time-dependent characteristics against M.

Additionally, these results will guide optimal dosing strategies of doxycycline in M. However, because most tet-regulated mouse strains use promoters of genes expressed in multiple tissues, to achieve exclusive expression in an organ of interest is often impossible. Indeed, in the extreme case, unwanted transgene expression in other organ systems causes lethality and precludes the study of the transgene in the actual organ of interest.

Here, we describe a novel approach to activating tet-inducible transgene expression solely in the airway by administering aerosolized doxycycline. By optimizing the dose and duration of aerosolized doxycycline exposure in mice possessing a ubiquitously expressed Rosa26 promoter—driven reverse tet-controlled transcriptional activator rtTA element, we induce transgene expression exclusively in the airways.

We detect no changes in the cellular composition or proliferative behavior of airway cells. We used this newly developed method to achieve airway basal stem cell—specific transgene expression using a cytokeratin 5 also known as keratin 5 —driven rtTA driver line to induce Notch pathway activation.

We observed a more robust mucous metaplasia phenotype than in mice receiving doxycycline systemically. In addition, unwanted phenotypes outside of the lung that were evident when doxycycline was received systemically were now absent. Thus, our approach allows for rapid and efficient airway-specific transgene expression.

After the careful strain by strain titration of the dose and timing of doxycycline inhalation, a suite of preexisting transgenic mice can now be used to study airway biology specifically in cases where transient transgene expression is sufficient to induce a phenotype.

Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains prevalent and causes substantial reproductive morbidity. Recent studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydia infection. We conducted a randomized trial comparing oral azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, to evaluate the noninferiority of azithromycin 1 g in one dose to doxycycline mg twice daily for 7 days.

The treatment was directly observed. The primary end point was treatment failure at 28 days after treatment initiation, with treatment failure determined on the basis of nucleic acid amplification testing, sexual history, and outer membrane protein A OmpA genotyping of C. Among the participants enrolled, were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline.

There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group. In the azithromycin group, treatment failure occurred in 5 participants 3. The observed difference in failure rates between the treatment groups was 3. The noninferiority of azithromycin was not established in this setting. Influence of load and sliding velocity on wear resistance of solid-lubricant composites of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Doxycycline alters collagen composition following ventral hernia repair.

Doxycycline , a nonspecific metalloproteinase MMP inhibitor, has been demonstrated to impact the strength of the polypropylene PP mesh-repaired hernia with an increase in the deposition of collagen type 1. The impact of doxycycline with porcine acellular dermal matrices PADM is unknown; therefore, we evaluated the impact of doxycycline administration upon hernia repair with PP and PADM mesh.

After a day recovery, animals were randomly assigned to four groups of eight and underwent intraperitoneal underlay hernia repair with either PP or PADM. There were no differences in the mesh to fascial interface tensiometric strength between groups. Collagen type 1 deposition at the mesh to fascial interface is enhanced following administration of doxycycline in ventral hernia repairs with porcine acellular dermal matrices. Doxycycline administration may have implications for enhancing hernia repair outcomes using biologic mesh.

The findings in this study demonstrate that micelles show improved dispersion, high stability, and excellent fluorescent property in aqueous solutions, suitable for targeted imaging of cancer cells with over-expressing folate receptors on their surface. The micelles designed in this study will be a promising tool for early detection of cancer.

Background Detecting a new effective and hypotoxic anticancer drug is an emerging new strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Doxycycline DC is a kind of antibiotics but also inhibits tumorigenesis. Methods MTT and cell invasion assay, flow cytometry, western-blot analysis and nude mice were used to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of doxycycline on epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

In vivo, doxycycline inhibited peritoneal tumor xenograft and decreased malignant ascites. Conclusion Doxycycline not only has an inhibitory effect on ovarian cancer, but also can increase sensitivity to cisplatin. Thermodynamic studies of iron chelation with doxycycline in acidic medium.

Doxycycline DOX is a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic synthetically derived from oxytetracycline. The complex formation of this drug with iron III was studied using spectrophotometry. The thermodynamic parameters of the systems were calculated using the changes in the absorption spectra which occur due to hydrogen bond or complex formation.

The obtained data show that the complex has metal to ligand molar ratio of 1: 2 at pH The stability constants were calculated to be This process has shown promise in this treatment thanks mainly to the fact that the waste did not show any relevant inhibitory effect on the test organism and no cytotoxicity to L cells, thus demonstrating that the antibiotic properties were inactivated.

Evaluation of safety of lipomer doxycycline hydrochloride lipomer DH. The nanoparticulate formulation of lipomer doxycycline hydrochloride lipomer DH has been synthesized for the treatment of Brucellosis to increase efficacy of the drug.

The present study was undertaken to determine the intravenous safety of blank lipomer and Lipomer DH in terms of maximum tolerated dose in rats. Doxycycline reduces nitric oxide production in guinea pig inner ears.

However, even in the case of low-dose intratympanic application, gentamicin might contribute to a pathological NO-increase leading to cochlear damage and hearing impairment. The study was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide NO reducing capacity of doxycycline in the inner ear after NO-induction by gentamicin. The auditory brainstem responses ABRs were recorded prior to application and 3, 5 and 7 days afterwards. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall of 42 animals were isolated after 7 days and incubated separately for 6h in cell culture medium.

Doxycycline was adjusted to organ cultures of 5 animals. As controls, seven animals received no further substance except gentamicin. The NO-production was quantified by chemiluminescence. Additional six gentamicin-treated animals were used for immunohistochemical studies. The ABRs declined continuously from the first to the seventh day after gentamicin application. The application of doxycycline might offer a new therapeutic approach to prevent NO-induced cochlea damage through ototoxic substances.

Effect of cathodic polarization on coating doxycycline on titanium surfaces. Cathodic polarization has been reported to enhance the ability of titanium based implant materials to interact with biomolecules by forming titanium hydride at the outermost surface layer. Although this hydride layer has recently been suggested to allow the immobilization of the broad spectrum antibiotic doxycycline on titanium surfaces, the involvement of hydride in binding the biomolecule onto titanium remains poorly understood.

To gain better understanding of the influence this immobilization process has on titanium surfaces, mirror-polished commercially pure titanium surfaces were cathodically polarized in the presence of doxycycline and the modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and angle-resolved X-ray spectroscopy.

We demonstrated that no hydride was created during the polarization process. Doxycycline was found to be attached to an oxide layer that was modified during the electrochemical process. A bacterial assay using bioluminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis Xen43 showed the ability of the coating to reduce bacterial colonization and planktonic bacterial growth.

Tear film concentrations of doxycycline following oral administration in ophthalmologically normal dogs. Doxycycline was administered 1 hour prior to feeding. Tear samples were collected from days 1 through 10 approximately 3 hours after the morning dose was administered. Following a 3-week washout period, dogs received the alternative dose in the same conditions.

Doxycycline concentration in tear samples from 1 eye same eye used for both sessions was measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared between the 2 doxycycline doses. Concentrations differed significantly with time, but this difference was not influenced by dose, dose order, or eye. Dose had no significant effect on tear film concentration of the drug. Doxycycline , a synthetically derived tetracycline, is a partially efficacious causal prophylactic liver stage of Plasmodium drug and a slow acting blood schizontocidal agent highly effective for the prevention of malaria.

When used in conjunction with a fast acting schizontocidal agent, it is also highly effective for malaria treatment. Doxycycline is especially useful as a prophylaxis in areas with chloroquine and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although not recommended for pregnant women and children doxycycline. This report examines the evidence behind current recommendations for the use of doxycycline for malaria and summarizes the available literature on its safety and tolerability.

Effect of iron ion on doxycycline photocatalytic and Fenton-based autocatatalytic decomposition. This highlights the autocatalytic profile of doxycycline degradation. Ferric iron reduction in the presence of doxycycline relied on doxycycline -to-Fe III complex formation with an ensuing reductive release of Fe II.

The quantum yield of doxycycline in direct UV-C photolysis was 3. Acidic reaction media pH 3. Thus, factors such as doxycycline 's ability to form complexes with ferric iron and the ability of complexes to participate in a reductive pathway should be considered at a technological level in process optimization, with chemistry based on iron ion catalysis to enhance the doxycycline oxidative pathway. Doxycycline inhibits leukemic cell migration via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase.

Doxycycline , a tetracycline-based antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate melanoma cell migration through inhibiting the focal adhesion kinase FAK signaling pathway. However, it remains to be elucidated whether doxycycline exerts this effect on leukemia cell migration.

The present study aimed to examine the role of doxycycline in leukemia cell migration. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to further understand the influence of doxycycline treatment on the expression of FAK and gelatinases in the KG1a and K leukemic cell lines. In addition, FAK protein expression and phosphorylation were determined using western blot analysis in order to investigate the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibited leukemic cell migration.

The results revealed that doxycycline treatment significantly attenuated the migration of KG1a and K cells, which was demonstrated to be associated with inhibition of the expression and phosphorylation of FAK. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that doxycycline attenuated leukemic cell migration through inhibiting the FAK signaling pathway.

Therefore, doxycycline may have potential for use as a novel strategy for the treatment of leukemia. Doxycycline is the preferred recommended second-line treatment for the treatment of early syphilis. Recent reports showed a declining efficacy trend of doxycycline in treatment of early syphilis. The aim of our study was to assess the serological response to the treatment for early syphilis with doxycycline compared with benzathine penicillin G and evaluate whether doxycycline is still an effective agent for the treatment of early syphilis.

A record-based retrospective study was conducted. Patients were diagnosed with early syphilis in an sexually transmitted disease STD clinic from January 1, to December 31, They were treated with a single dose of benzathine penicillin G 2. Pearson's chi-squared test was used for data analysis. The serological responses at 6 months and 12 months after treatment were compared. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups at 6 months Doxycycline is still an effective agent for the treatment of early syphilis.

Revisiting doxycycline in pregnancy and early childhood--time to rebuild its reputation? Doxycycline is highly effective, inexpensive with a broad therapeutic spectrum and exceptional bioavailability. However these benefits have been overshadowed by its classification alongside the tetracyclines - class D drugs, contraindicated in pregnancy and in children under 8 years of age. Doxycycline -treatable diseases are emerging as leading causes of undifferentiated febrile illness in Southeast Asia.

The emerging evidence for these important doxycycline -treatable diseases prompted us to revisit doxycycline usage in pregnancy and childhood. A systematic review of the available literature on doxycycline use in pregnant women and children revealed a safety profile of doxycycline that differed significantly from that of tetracycline; no correlation between the use of doxycycline and teratogenic effects during pregnancy or dental staining in children was found.

The change of the US FDA pregnancy classification scheme to an evidence-based approach will enable adequate evaluation of doxycycline in common tropical illnesses and in vulnerable populations in clinical treatment trials, dosage-optimization pharmacokinetic studies and for the empirical treatment of undifferentiated febrile illnesses, especially in pregnant women and children.

The increased abundance and activity of cathelicidin and kallikrein 5 KLK5 , a predominant trypsin-like serine protease TLSP in the stratum corneum, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rosacea, a disorder treated by the use of low-dose doxycycline. Here we hypothesized that doxycycline can inhibit activation of tryptic KLKs through an indirect mechanism by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases MMPs in keratinocytes. The capacity of doxycycline to directly inhibit enzyme activity was measured in surface collections of human facial skin and extracts of cultured keratinocytes by fluorescence polarization assay against fluorogenic substrates specific for MMPs or TLSPs.

Doxycycline did inhibit MMP activity but did not directly inhibit serine protease activity against a fluorogenic substrate specific for TLSPs. Furthermore, doxycycline under these conditions inhibited the generation of the cathelicidin peptide LL from its precursor protein hCAP18, a process dependent on KLK activity.

These results demonstrate that doxycycline can prevent cathelicidin activation, and suggest a previously unknown mechanism of action for doxycycline through inhibiting generation of active cathelicidin peptides. Doxycycline assay hair samples for testing long-term compliance treatment. Many patients undergoing long-term doxycycline treatment do not regularly take their treatment because of photosensitivity. Our objective was to create an assay for determining doxycycline levels and to use hair samples for monitoring the compliance over a longer period of time.

We tested sera and hair samples from patients treated with doxycycline by a suitable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography UHPLC based assay. We estimated that the speed of hair growth is roughly 1. We tested 14 patients treated with doxycycline and we found similar levels of doxycycline in the serum and the hair samples representing the last 4 months. We detected two patients who did not have antibiotic in the hair, indicating a lack of compliance that was also confirmed by interview.

Hair samples can be used to test long-term compliance in patients to explain failures or relapses. Revisiting doxycycline in pregnancy and early childhood — time to rebuild its reputation? However these benefits have been overshadowed by its classification alongside the tetracyclines — class D drugs, contraindicated in pregnancy and in children under 8 years of age.

Areas Covered: A systematic review of the available literature on doxycycline use in pregnant women and children revealed a safety profile of doxycycline that differed significantly from that of tetracycline; no correlation between the use of doxycycline and teratogenic effects during pregnancy or dental staining in children was found. Expert Opinion: The change of the US FDA pregnancy classification scheme to an evidence-based approach will enable adequate evaluation of doxycycline in common tropical illnesses and in vulnerable populations in clinical treatment trials, dosage-optimization pharmacokinetic studies and for the empirical treatment of undifferentiated febrile illnesses, especially in pregnant women and children.

New intracanal formulations containing doxycycline or chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The present study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of two new intracanal preparations against E. Thirty single-rooted human canine teeth were used. The crowns were removed and the roots were instrumented using a conventional technique.

Ten teeth received no medication NM -negative control. Microbial samples were obtained 21 days after contamination: 14 days under the effect of the intracanal medications and 7 days after replacing the medications by BHI broth. All intracanal dressings significantly reduced the number of bacterial cells in the root canal after 14 days with medication. However, the NM group showed a significant increase of CFU in this period to similar values of the initial contamination.

Background Despite recovery of hemodynamics by fluid resuscitation after hemorrhage, development of the systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes can nonetheless lead to death. Minocycline and doxycycline are tetracycline derivatives that are protective in models of hypoxic, ischemic and oxidative stress.

Our Aim was to determine whether minocycline and doxycycline protect liver and kidney and improve survival in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. For pre-plus post-treatment, drugs were administered intraperitoneally prior to hemorrhage followed by second equal dose in Ringer's solution after blood resuscitation.

Blood and tissue were harvested after 6 h. Minocycline and doxycycline pre- plus post-treatment decreased creatinine similarly. Minocycline and doxycycline also decreased necrosis and apoptosis in liver and apoptosis in both liver and kidney, the latter assessed by TUNEL and caspase-3 activation. Lastly after 4. Conclusion Minocycline and doxycycline were similarly protective when given before as after blood resuscitation and might therefore. Patients underwent full pulmonary function testing, a six-minute walk test, and quality of life assessment, as well as blood and urine sampling for quantification of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF-D levels-at baseline, as well as at 6 and 12 months after the initiation of doxycycline.

The patients with mild spirometric abnormalities responded better to doxycycline. The most common side effects were mild epigastric pain, nausea, and diarrhea. However, these benefits do not seem to be related to the MMP blockade, raising the hypothesis that there is a different mechanism of action. Plastic material is one of the most serious solid wastes pollution. More than 40 million tons of plastics produced each year are discarded into environment.

Plastics accumulated in the environment is highly resistant to biodegradation and not be able to take part in substance recycle. To increase the biodegradation efficiency of plastics by different means is the main research direction. This article reviewed the recent research works of polyethylene biodegradation that included the modification and pretreatment of polyethylene , biodegradation pathway, the relevant microbes and enzymes and the changes of physical, chemical and biological properties after biodegradation.

The study directions of exploiting the kinds of life-forms of biodegradation polyethylene except the microorganisms, isolating and cloning the key enzymes and gene that could produce active groups, and enhancing the study on polyethylene biodegradation without additive were proposed. Doxycycline affects gene expression profiles in aortic tissues in a rat model of vascular calcification.

Vitamin D 3 -induced vascular calcification VC in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with calcification occurring in human atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, thereby it is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Doxycycline has been shown to effectively attenuated VC. This study aimed to explore the effects of doxycycline on gene expression profiles in VC rats. The model of VC in rats was established by subcutaneous injection of vitamin D3 for 3days.

Doxycycline at mgkg -1 day -1 was given via subcutaneous injection for 14days. Rat pathological changes, calcium deposition and calcium content in aortic tissues were measured by Hematoxylin-eosin, von Kossa staining and colorimetry, respectively. The gene change profile of aortic tissues after doxycycline treatment was assessed by Gene Microarray analysis using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Oligo Microarray.

The results showed that doxycycline significantly decreased the deposition of calcium, reduced the relative calcification area and alleviated pathological injury in aortic tissues. In addition, doxycycline treatment altered 88 gene expressions compared with untreated VD group. Of these, 61 genes were down-regulated and 27 genes were up-regulated. The functions of differentially expressed DE genes were involved in neutrophil chemotaxis, chronic inflammatory response, negative regulation of apoptotic process, cellular response to mechanical stimulus and immune response, etc.

In conclusions, this study might provide the potential novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of doxycycline on VC. Background Doxycycline DOX exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and pro-apoptotic activity and is being tested in clinical trials as a chemotherapeutic agent for several cancers, including colon cancer. Results Doxycycline administration in DMH-treated rats DMH-DOX unexpectedly increased tumor multiplicity, stimulated progression of colonic tumor growth from adenomas to carcinomas and revealed metastasis in small intestine as determined by macroscopic and histopathological analysis.

DOX-alone treatment showed markedly enhanced chronic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia, which was dependent upon the dose of doxycycline administered. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis revealed evidence of inflammation and anti-apoptotic action of DOX by deregulation of various biomarkers.

Conclusion These results suggest that doxycycline caused chronic inflammation in colon, small intestine injury, enhanced the efficacy of DMH in tumor progression and provided a mechanistic link between doxycycline -induced chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. Ongoing studies thus may need to focus on the molecular mechanisms of doxycycline action, which lead to its inflammatory and tumorigenic effects. A prospective double-blind study on the effects of doxycycline as a prophylactic antimicrobial in elective colonic surgery is presented.

One hundred-eighteen patients were evaluated. Fifty-eight were treated and 60 were controls. Two hundred milligrams, doxycycline or placebo two capsules were given orally four to six hours prior to surgery and mg or placebo one capsule for five days postoperatively. Doxycycline levels in serum and tissues were determined and related to the MICvalues of the contaminants of the operative field. A significantly lower incidence of abdominal wound sepsis, intra-abdominal complications, and septicemia was recorded in the doxycycline group compared to the control group, The prophylactic effect was most pronounced in patients with a negative wound culture upon closure.

Macroscopical peritoneal contamination was associated with less severe consequencies in the doxycycline group. Treatment also reduced the incidence of repeat laparotomy due to septic complications, 0 vs 8. Thus systemic per and postoperative prophylaxis with doxycycline significantly reduced both the incidence and the severity of postoperative sepsis in potentially contaminated elective colorectal surgery without any adverse reactions.

A new therapeutic association to manage relapsing experimental colitis: Doxycycline plus Saccharomyces boulardii. Immunomodulatory antibiotics have been proposed for the treatment of multifactorial conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics are able to attenuate intestinal inflammation, being considered as safe when chronically administered.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline , a tetracycline with immunomodulatory properties, alone and in association with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCMI Doxycycline was assayed both in vitro Caco-2 epithelial cells and RAW In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of the association of doxycycline and the probiotic was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a DSS model of reactivated colitis in mice.

Doxycycline displayed immunomodulatory activity in vitro, reducing IL-8 production by intestinal epithelial cells and nitric oxide by macrophages. Doxycycline treatment was also effective in reducing acute intestinal inflammation in the DSS model of mouse colitis.

The association of doxycycline and S. This was evidenced by a reduced disease activity index, colonic tissue damage and expression of inflammatory mediators. This study confirms the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and supports the potential use of its therapeutic association with S. Doxycycline concentration over time after storage in a compounded veterinary preparation. To determine the concentration of doxycycline compounded from doxycycline hyclate tablets into liquid formulations for oral administration in veterinary species and stored for 28 days.

Evaluation study. Doxycycline hyclate tablets mg crushed and mixed with a mixture of syrup and suspension vehicles for oral administration to produce 3 batches each of 2 doxycycline formulations: Doxycycline was extracted from the formulations, and concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography on days 0 date of preparation , 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and Concentrations were compared with those of a US Pharmacopeial Convention reference standard.

Formulation quality at each point was also assessed through color change, formulation consistency, and suspension uniformity. However, doxycycline concentrations had decreased dramatically by day 14 and remained low for the duration of the study period.

Doxycycline concentrations on days 14, 21, and 28 were all doxycycline concentration was identified. The concentration of doxycycline , compounded from commercial tablets in the vehicles evaluated to yield doses of Since resistance of Helicobacter pylori is developing very fast all over the world, new treatment regimens for eradication are urgently needed.

To compare eradication success rate of H. English medical literature searches were conducted for regimens including doxycycline for eradication of H. Meta-analysis was performed by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. The OR for eradication success rate in a fixed model was in favor for treatment regimens with doxycycline : 1.

When treatment regimens with doxycycline were compared only with treatment regimens with tetracycline, no significant difference was found in eradication success rate: OR 0. But when treatment regimens with doxycycline were compared with treatment regimens without tetracycline, the OR in favor of doxycycline was even higher: OR 1. Thus, triple, quadruple or even high dose dual therapy with regimens containing doxycycline should be considered.

Karger AG, Basel. Recently, the inclusion compound formed by doxycycline and modified CD was investigated. In the inclusion compound, the unstable site of doxycycline was protected by the hydrophobic CD cavity. However, the guest arrangement inside CD cavity has not identified. In some situations, the correlation between protons of the guest and host in a 2D-ROESY experiment can be compatible with head and tail spatial arrangements.

For sake of comparison, tetracycline inclusion compound was also studied. Objective Strategies to improve cartilage repair tissue quality after bone marrow cell-based procedures may reduce later development of osteoarthritis. Doxycycline is inexpensive, well-tolerated, and has been shown to reduce matrix-metalloproteinases MMP and osteoarthritis progression.

This study tests the hypotheses that doxycycline reduces MMP, enhances chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells hMSC , and improves in vivo cartilage repair. Rats were sacrificed at weeks and repair tissues were examined grossly and histologically. Doxycycline exerted no negative effect on multiple measures of chondrogenesis and cartilage repair. These data support potential use of doxycycline to improve cartilage repair to delay the onset of osteoarthritis.

These doxycycline effects are not associated with its antibacterial action, but mediated by direct activation of a PI3K-AKT intracellular signal. These findings indicate doxycycline as a useful supplement for stem cell cultures, facilitating their growth and maintenance. Mende, Katrin; Beckius, Miriam L.

There is concern that susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to tetracyclines may decrease due to use of antimalarial prophylaxis doxycycline. We examined characteristics related to tetracycline resistance, including doxycycline exposure, in S.

Tetracycline class resistance was determined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first S. Characterization of interaction between doxycycline and human serum albumin by capillary electrophoresis-frontal analysis. The binding of doxycycline to HSA under simulated physiological conditions pH 7.

The number of primary binding sites, binding constant and physiological protein-binding percentage were 1. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters including enthalpy change DeltaH , entropy change DeltaS and free energy change DeltaG of the reaction were obtained in order to characterize the acting forces between doxycycline and HSA. Furthermore, to better understand the nature of doxycycline -HSA binding and to get information about potential interaction with other drugs, displacement experiments were performed.

In a transssectional survey, nasal carriage of this strain was found in 2. Lymphangiogenesis is significantly involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including graft rejection, cancer metastasis and various inflammatory conditions. The inhibition of lymphangiogenesis has become a new therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases.

Here, we explored the anti-lymphangiogenic effects of doxycycline in inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis ILA in the cornea and the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, mice with ILA of the cornea were treated with topical doxycycline 0. Lymphangiogenesis was quantified using corneal immunostaining of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 LYVE This observation suggests that doxycycline is a potential therapeutic agent for lymphangiogenesis-related diseases.

Effects of doxycycline on local and systemic inflammation in stable COPD patients, a randomized clinical trial. Neutrophil derived myeloperoxidase MPO matrix metalloproteinases MMP's , and elastases are thought to contribute to the perpetuation of the disease. The tetracycline analogue doxycycline has been shown to inhibit neutrophil-mediated inflammation.

It was thus reasoned that doxycycline may attenuate neutrophil-mediated inflammation in COPD. In this double blind randomized controlled trial the effect of a 3-week course of doxycycline on sputum and systemic inflammatory parameters was evaluated in stable COPD patients. In order to exclude inflammation by bacterial colonisation patients must have 2 negative sputum cultures in the previous year. Sputum was obtained by sputum induction with hypertonic saline.

A total of 41 patients were included. Ten patients were excluded as they were not able to produce sputum at the first or second visit. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. In the remaining patients doxycycline did not influence sputum MPO concentrations.

Systemic inflammation by means of CRP was also not influenced by doxycycline. A three week course of doxycycline did not influence MPO sputum levels nor any of the other inflammatory sputum and systemic markers. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing. Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced.

Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories. Seven days of doxycycline is an effective treatment for asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infection. There are no evidence-based guidelines for the specific management of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis CT infection. A total of asymptomatic rectal CT infections were diagnosed and analysis was restricted to TOCs from men whose only treatment had been doxycycline for seven days.

Only two patients tested CT-positive at follow-up.