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Seasoned punters will find calculating odds to be second nature but for beginners the prospect of getting to grips with what odds mean and in particular grappling with fractional odds can be a daunting one. Even if you're an experienced punter this Masterclass on understanding odds offers you the chance to refresh your thinking on identifying value based on the implied probability of odds. Traditionally, odds in the UK are expressed as a fraction. These odds can be used to calculate your net profit excluding your stake and although they seem complicated the method of calculation is relatively straightforward. This is best explained using an example. So whatever your stake is you can multiply it by 1.

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Problematic computer gaming co-occurred only with cannabis use, whereas problematic gambling was associated with all three types of substance use. Multivariate multilevel analyses showed differential patterns of personality characteristics. High impulsivity was the only personality characteristic associated with all five addictive behaviours.

Depression and extraversion were specific to substance users. Problematic gamblers seem to be more similar to substance users than problematic computer gamers. From a personality perspective, results correspond to the inclusion of gambling in the same DSM-V category as substance use and question a one-to-one proceeding for computer gaming. Karger AG, Basel. A prospective follow-up study of younger and older subjects with pathological gambling. Pathological gambling PG is a common and costly public health problem associated with impaired quality of life and high suicide rates.

Despite its frequency in the general population, PG course is poorly understood in older adults who are especially vulnerable to its devastating consequences. Subjects were evaluated at intake and reassessed every 6 months and drop outs were replaced. Follow-up lasted a mean SD of 2. At intake older PGs were more likely to be female, Caucasian, divorced, and to have a lower level of education.

They preferred slots, were more likely to receive PG treatment, and were less likely to discontinue participation in the study. Week by week gambling activity levels showed a significant general downward movement for older and younger PGs, although there were no differences between the groups. Elders without PG had no change in their level of gambling activity.

We conclude that younger and older PGs moved toward a reduced level of gambling activity during follow-up. Our data challenge the notion that PG is chronic and progressive. Excessive Gambling and Online Gambling Communities. The Internet provides an accessible context for online gambling and gambling -related online communities, such as discussion forums for gamblers.

These communities may be particularly attractive to young gamblers who are active Internet users. Excessive gambling was assessed by using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Respondents were asked in a survey about their use of various kinds of gambling -related online communities, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were adjusted.

The results of the study revealed that over half Discussion in these communities was mainly based on sharing gambling tips and experiences, and very few respondents said that they related to gambling problems and recovery. The association of visiting such sites was even stronger among probable pathological gamblers than among at-risk gamblers.

Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online communities in terms of development and persistence of excessive gambling. Monitoring the use of online gambling communities as well as utilizing recovery-oriented support both offline and online would be important in preventing further problems. Gambling platforms should also include warnings about excessive gambling and provide links to helpful sources.

Efficacy of personalized normative feedback as a brief intervention for college student gambling : a randomized controlled trial. Social influences on gambling among adolescents and adults have been well documented and may be particularly evident among college students, who have higher rates of problem and pathological gambling relative to the general population.

Personalized normative feedback PNF is a brief intervention designed to correct misperceptions regarding the prevalence of problematic behavior by showing individuals engaging in such behaviors that their own behavior is atypical with respect to actual norms.

The current randomized controlled trial evaluated a computer-delivered PNF intervention for problem gambling college students. Follow-up assessments were completed 3 and 6 months postintervention. Results indicated significant intervention effects in reducing perceived norms for quantities lost and won, and in reducing actual quantity lost and gambling problems at the 3-month follow-up.

All intervention effects except reduced gambling problems remained at the 6-month follow-up. Mediation results indicated that changes in perceived norms at 3 months mediated the intervention effects. Further, the intervention effects were moderated by self-identification with other student gamblers, suggesting that PNF worked better at reducing gambling for those who more strongly identified with other student gamblers.

Results support the use of PNF as a stand-alone brief intervention for at-risk gambling students. Extending this approach more broadly may provide an accessible, empirically supported gambling prevention option for universities and related institutions. Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M. Objective Social influences on gambling among adolescents and adults have been well documented and may be particularly evident among college students, who have higher rates of problem and pathological gambling relative to the general population.

Results Results indicated significant intervention effects in reducing perceived norms for quantities lost and won, and in reducing actual quantity lost and gambling problems at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Results support the use of PNF as a stand-alone brief intervention for at-risk gambling students.

Concentration gradients of morphogens are known to be instrumental in cell signaling and tissue patterning. Of interest here is how the presence of a competitor of BMP ligands affects cell signaling. The effects of Sog on the binding of Dpp with cell receptors are analyzed for dorsal-ventral morphogen gradient formation in vertebrate and Drosophila embryos.

This prototype system includes diffusing ligands, degradation of morphogens, and cleavage of Dpp- Sog complexes by Tolloid to free up Dpp. Simple and biologically meaningful necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a steady state gradient configuration are established, and existence theorems are proved. For high Sog production rates relative to the Dpp production rate , it is found that the steady state configuration exhibits a more intense Dpp-receptor concentration near the dorsal midline.

Numerical simulations of the evolution of the system show that, beyond some threshold Sog production rate, the transient Dpp-receptor concentration at the dorsal midline would become more intense than that of the steady state, before subsiding and approaching a nonuniform steady state of lower magnitude.

The magnitude of the transient concentration has been found to increase by several fold with increasing Sog production rate. The highly intense Dpp activity at and around the dorsal midline is consistent with available experimental observations and other analytical studies. Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced male prisoners in four New Zealand prisons.

Frequent participation in and high expenditure on continuous forms of gambling prior to imprisonment were reported. Nineteen percent said they had been in prison for a gambling -related offence and most of this offending was property-related and non-violent. Gambling -related offending increased with problem gambling severity. However, only five percent of problem gamblers said their early offending was gambling -related. The large majority reported other types of offending at this time.

Few men had sought or received help for gambling problems prior to imprisonment or during their present incarceration. This highlights the potential for assessment and treatment programs in prison to reduce recidivism and adverse effects of problem gambling and gambling -related offending. The relationship between gambling expenditure, socio-demographics, health-related correlates and gambling behaviour-a cross-sectional population-based survey in Finland.

To investigate gambling expenditure and its relationship with socio-demographics, health-related correlates and past-year gambling behaviour. Cross-sectional population survey. Population-based survey in Finland. People in Finland with lower. Pathological Gambling among Italian Nursing Students. To investigate the role of psychiatric dimensions, behavioral or substance addictions and demographical variables as determinants of pathological gambling among nursing students.

Multicenter cross-sectional study. From June to October a survey was carried out among Italian Nursing students. Data were collected using a six-section tool. Nursing students who completed the survey numbered , Italian nursing students have some problems with gambling and pathological gambling problem, and males are those who have more problems.

Results might be useful for faculties of health professionals to identify students at risk in an early stage, to direct prevention tailored interventions. Nursing faculties should be aware of the prevalence of Gambling among students. Prevention interventions should be planned to minimize the risk of gambling behavior in the future nurses' health care workers. Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced women in new zealand prisons. Ninety-four recently sentenced women prisoners were interviewed to assess aspects of their gambling involvement, problem gambling and relationships between gambling and criminal offending.

A third of the women, on the basis of their SOGS -R scores, were assessed as lifetime probable pathological gamblers and just under a quarter were assessed as probable pathological gamblers during the 6 months prior to imprisonment. For women prisoners, a preference for non-casino gaming machines and housie were predictive of problem gambling.

Relative to non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers experienced higher rates of childhood conduct disorder and current non-psychotic mental disorder. Just over a quarter of prisoners and a half of the problem gamblers had committed a crime to obtain money to gamble.

Few women said their early offending or convictions related to gambling. It was concluded that most women were "criminals first and problem gamblers second" rather than people whose offending careers commenced as a consequence of problem gambling. However, the extent of problem gambling -related offending among the women prisoners highlights the potential for comprehensive assessment and treatment programs in prison to reduce recidivism and other adverse impacts of problem gambling and gambling -related offending.

Forward genetic screening in model organisms is the workhorse to discover functionally important genes and pathways in many biological processes. We have developed a simple approach to induce heritable mutations in C. This mutagenesis method is free of toxic chemicals and requires minimal laboratory safety and waste management. The induced DNA modifications include single-nucleotide changes and small deletions, and complement those caused by classical chemical mutagenesis.

This methodology can also be used to induce integration of extrachromosomal transgenes. Here, we provide the details of the LED setup and protocols for standard mutagenesis and transgene integration. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents and young adults from 38 schools in two German states was conducted in to assess the association between gambling advertisements and gambling behavior. Exposure to ten gambling advertisements was measured with masked ad images; students indicated contact frequency and brand recall.

A total of The average frequency that one of the selected ads had been seen at least once was After adjustment for confounding, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions revealed that high gambling ad exposure was positively related to all assessed gambling outcomes, with the strongest association for weekly gambling.

Future studies need to clarify the temporal sequence and specificity of these associations. Compulsive Gambling. Compulsive gambling is more common in men than women. Women who gamble typically start later in life But gambling patterns among men and women have become increasingly similar. Family or friend influence.

Teen Gambling. Look for the following warning signs: Finding gambling " Attitudes towards gambling , gambling participation, and gambling -related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in and Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling -related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling , gambling participation, and gambling -related harm in the Finnish population aged The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence.

Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from to Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under Occasional gambling increased among women aged Women aged and experienced more harms in than in Both land and online gambling increased among women aged Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from to in all age groups except Weekly gambling decreased among males aged Gambling overall increased among males aged Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged and , and gambling times a month increased in the latter age group.

Online gambling increased only among men aged Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling -related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.

Many people enjoy gambling , whether it's betting on a horse or playing poker on the Internet. Most people who gamble don't have a problem, but some lose control of their gambling. Signs of problem gambling include Always thinking about Gambling , gambling activities, and problem gambling. This research examined similarities and differences between gambling activities, with a particular focus on differences in gambling frequency and rates of problem gambling. The data were from population-based surveys conducted in Canada between and A factor analysis of the frequency with which different gambling activities were played documented the existence of two clear underlying factors.

Factor one respondents were largely men; factor two respondents were more likely to be women and scored significantly lower on a measure of problem gambling. Copyright c APA, all rights reserved. A hidden curriculum: gambling and problem gambling among high school students in Auckland. Participation in gambling by young people aged years.

During , prior to the passing of legislation to minimise gambling harm, more than students from six high schools completed a survey of their participation in gambling during the previous 12 months, and completed three problem gambling screens. Gambling , including under-age gambling , was a common event.

Up to one in five were identified as at risk for problem gambling on at least one screen. Students who were non-European, or were from low socioeconomic areas, were more likely to be at risk for problem gambling. Help for gambling problems was preferred from friends and family rather than others, while inclusion of information in the education curriculum about risk of gambling problems was supported.

The survey provided evidence for pre-legislation baseline gambling behaviour, and risk for problem gambling , of students attending high schools in Auckland. Levels of risk for problem gambling paralleled the elevated risk found for youth in many countries. Raising awareness, through a school curriculum, of risk for gambling problems among adolescents may be explored as a strategy to reduce the high levels of risk for gambling problems identified.

Pathological gambling. Causes Compulsive gambling most often begins in early Losing a job, relationship, education, or career opportunity due to gambling. Gambling Addiction. Have you ever lied to a Have you ever stolen money or shoplifted to finance your gambling? Have you ever committed or thought Gambling and problem gambling among young adolescents in Great Britain.

Our regression models explore influences of demographic, home and school characteristics on probabilities both unconditional and conditional on being a gambler of a child testing positive for problem gambling. Age-group prevalence of problem gambling was 1. Boys were much more likely than girls to gamble and to exhibit symptoms of problem gambling if they did. Generally, home characteristics, particularly parental attitude and example, dominated school characteristics in accounting for risks.

Unanticipated findings included significantly elevated probabilities of problem gambling among Asian children and among children who live in a home without siblings. Child income was also a potent predictor of gambling and problem gambling. Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions EF , which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability.

Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data analysis determined which variables of the tests correlated with poker ability and gambling quality scores. The highest correlations between EF test results and poker ability and between EF test results and gambling quality assessment showed that mostly different clusters of executive functions characterize the profile of the strong er poker player and those ones of the problem gamblers PGSI and SOGS and the one of the cognitions related to gambling GRCS.

Taking into consideration only the variables overlapping between PGSI and SOGS , we found some key predictive factors for a more risky and harmful online poker playing: a lower performance in the emotional intelligence competences Emotional Quotient inventory Short and, in particular, those grouped in the Intrapersonal scale emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, independence and self-actualization. Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction.

In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling -related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden.

In Germany month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting i. Gambling among young adults occurs at a higher rate than in the general population and is associated with a host of negative consequences. Self-determination theory SDT posits that individuals develop general motivational orientations which predict a range of behavioral outcomes.

An autonomy orientation portrays a choiceful perspective facilitating personal growth, whereas a controlled orientation represents a chronic proclivity toward external pressures and a general lack of choice. Further, an impersonal orientation is characterized by alack of intention and feeling despondent and ineffective. Controlled orientation has previously been associated with more frequent and problematic gambling. This research was designed to examine gambling motives as mediators of associations between motivational orientations and gambling behaviors.

Mediation analyses suggested that autonomy was negatively associated with gambling problems through lower levels of chasing and escape motives. Further, controlled orientation was associated with more problems through higher levels of chasing and interest motives. Finally, impersonal orientation was negatively associated with amount won through escape motives. Overall, results support exploring gambling behavior and motives using a SDT framework. Motives for gambling have been shown to be associated with gambling involvement, and hence important in the understanding of the etiology of problem gambling.

The aim of this study was to describe differences in gambling motives in different subgroups of lifetime risk gamblers, categorized by: age, gender, alcohol- and drug habits and type of game preferred, when considering the level of risk gambling. When considering the level of risk gambling , motives for gambling were not associated with gender, whereas younger persons gambled for the challenge more often than did older participants. However, this association turned non-significant when considering the level of risk gambling.

Moderate risk gamblers played for the challenge and coping reasons to a greater extent than low risk gamblers motives for gambling differ across subgroups of preferred game and between gamblers with low and moderate risk. The level of risk gambling is intertwined with motives for gambling and should be considered when examining gambling reasons. Quantum Gambling. The protocol allows two remote parties to play a gambling game such that in a certain limit it becomes a fair game. No unconditionally secure classical method is known to accomplish this task.

Student Gambling. Gambling has been long recognized as an adult pastime characterized by thrills and risks. In recent years, however, it has increased significantly among adolescents, who have grown up in a society where it is legal and widely accepted. Movies, TV shows, and increased access to gaming through the Internet have helped embed gambling in modern youth….

Urban elders and casino gambling : Are they at risk of a gambling problem? This study examined gambling among older adults and explored the critical predictors of problem gambling behaviors. Relatively unknown and understudied is the extent, or prevalence, of problem gambling behaviors among urban elders and the factors associated with problem gambling.

The sample consisted of randomly selected participants, aged 60 and older, who reside in the City of Detroit. Mental health, health, demographics, social activities, senior optimism, social support network, and frequency of casino visits were examined in order to predict problem gambling behaviors among elders. The results showed that the prevalence of problem gambling behaviors was The findings from this study confirmed that gambling has the potential to become a serious health problem among elders.

Factors associated with disordered gambling in Finland. Background The purpose of this study was to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers, to investigate the association between gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being among the three subgroups of gamblers, and to analyse simultaneously socio-demographic characteristics, gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being and the severity of disordered gambling problem gamblers and pathological gamblers.

Methods The data were collected through a nationwide telephone survey in Participants were selected through a random population sample of year-old Finns. Gambling was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared tests. The odds ratio and effect size were computed by using multivariate-adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Male gender and loneliness were found to be associated with problem gambling in particular, along with smoking and risky alcohol consumption.

Mental health problems and risky alcohol consumption were associated with pathological gambling. These identified associations between disordered gambling , mental health problems and risky alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration when implementing screenings of disordered gambling. Lind, Penelope A. Disordered gambling is a moderately heritable trait, but the underlying genetic basis is largely unknown.

We performed a genome-wide association study GWAS for disordered gambling using a quantitative factor score in 1, twins from Australian families. Association was conducted for 2,, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs using the family-based association test in Merlin followed by gene and pathway enrichment analyses.

Although no SNP reached genome-wide significance, six achieved P-values gambling. Furthermore, several addiction-related pathways were enriched for SNPs associated with disordered gambling. We report the first GWAS of disordered gambling. While further replication is required, the identification of susceptibility loci and biological pathways will be important in characterizing the biological mechanisms that underpin disordered gambling. For several decades reactive oxygen species have been applied to water quality engineering and efficient disinfection strategies; however, these methods are limited by disinfection byproduct and catalyst-derived toxicity concerns which could be improved by selectively targeting contaminants of interest.

Here we present a targeted photocatalytic system based on the fusion protein StrepMini SOG that uses light within the visible spectrum to produce reactive oxygen species at a greater efficiency than current photosensitizers, allowing for shorter irradiation times from a fully biodegradable photocatalyst. The StrepMini SOG photodisinfection system is unable to cross cell membranes and like other consumed proteins, can be degraded by endogenous digestive enzymes in the human gut, thereby reducing the consumption risks typically associated with other disinfection agents.

We demonstrate specific, multi-log removal of Listeria monocytogenes from a mixed population of bacteria, establishing the StrepMini SOG disinfection system as a valuable tool for targeted pathogen removal, while maintaining existing microbial biodiversity. Eight-hundred and seventeen adolescent high school students in the Montreal region completed the DSM-IV-J gambling screen along with a questionnaire devised by the authors inquiring about their gambling behavior, including items assessing the types of activities in which they engage, frequency of involvement, reasons for gambling , and their cognitive perceptions of gambling activities.

The results indicate that, in general, Adolescents reported participating in gambling behavior more often than any other addictive behavior, including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use. The mean age of onset of gambling behavior for the sample was The rate of pathological gambling was 4. Pathological gamblers were more likely to have parents with gambling problems and to be engaging in illegal activities than non-pathological gamblers.

Gender differences were evident, with males engaging in gambling activities more than females. Differences in game preferences were found, with males more attracted to sports lottery tickets and sports pool betting and females more attracted to lottery tickets and bingo. Gambling awareness and prevention issues are addressed.

Increases in the availability of gambling heighten the need for a short screening measure of problem gambling. The Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI is a brief measure that allows for the assessment of characteristics of gambling behavior and severity and its consequences. The authors evaluate the psychometric properties of the PGSI using….

Suppressor of gamma response 1 SOG 1 encodes a putative transcription factor governing multiple responses to DNA damage. The Arabidopsis sog suppressor of gamma response mutant was originally isolated as a second-site suppressor of the radiosensitive phenotype of seeds defective in the repair endonuclease XPF.

Here, we report that SOG 1 encodes a putative transcription factor. Hundreds of genes are normally up-regulated in Arabidopsis within an hour of treatment with ionizing radiation; the induction of these genes requires the damage response protein kinase ATM, but not the related kinase ATR. Here, we find that SOG 1 is also required for this transcriptional up-regulation. Thus, phenotype of the sog mutant mimics aspects of the phenotypes of both atr and atm mutants in Arabidopsis, suggesting that SOG 1 participates in pathways governed by both of these sensor kinases.

We propose that, in plants, signals related to genomic stress are processed through a single, central transcription factor, SOG 1. Pathological gambling PG is a chronic mental disorder, and patients cannot stop gambling despite severe negative consequences, such as huge debts, job loss, family break-up, and so on. It is said that PG is more prevalent in Japan than in Western countries.

However, PG has not received much attention and has even been thought of as a lack of will to stop gambling rather than a mental disorder. PG has been classified under "Impulse-Control Disorders Not Elsewhere Classified," along with compulsive stealing kleptomania , starting fires pyromania and hair-pulling trichotillomania , but accumulative evidence suggests that PG has many similarities with substance use disorders. In this article, we review neuroimaging studies on PG on the basis of 4 dimensions - sensitivity to monetary reward and loss, craving and cue reactivity, impulsivity, and decision-making.

In general, PG patients show reduced sensitivity to both monetary reward and loss, increased gamble -related cue reactivity, and increased impulsivity. In contrast, decision-making contains many elements, and hence, future neuroimaging studies on PG should focus on these individual elements.

Some efforts have been made to combine molecular neuroimaging positron emission tomography with neuroeconomics to investigate the roles of neurotransmitters in altered decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Understanding the molecular mechanism of extreme or impaired decision-making could contribute to the assessment and prevention of drug and gambling addictions and to the development of novel pharmacological therapies for these addictions. Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems. The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling.

In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games e. This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement i. Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information.

Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1, subscribers to the bwin. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder.

However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling -related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component.

Gambling among European professional athletes. Prevalence and associated factors. In Europe, the prevalence of gambling disorders in the general population ranges from 0. Professional athletes are known for having risk factors for addictive behaviors, such as young age or sensation seeking, though no study has yet tried to evaluate the prevalence of gambling and gambling disorders among this specific population. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of gambling , problematic or not, among European professional athletes and to explore the factors that are associated with gambling practice and gambling problems in professional athletes.

A self-completion questionnaire was specifically designed for this study. The questionnaires were distributed by European Union athletes to professional ice hockey, rugby, handball, basketball, football, indoor football, volleyball, and cricket teams in Spain, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

There were 1, questionnaires filled out. The percentage of professional athletes that had gambled at least once during the previous year was The prevalence of problem gambling , current or past, was 8. A certain number of variables were associated with the gambling status.

Professional athletes are particularly exposed to both gambling. Results The optimal solution consisted of 4 classes that we termed low-risk gambling At-risk and PrG classes were associated with greater negative functioning and more gambling behaviors. Different patterns of associations between at-risk and PrG classes were also identified. Early identification and interventions for adolescent gamblers should be sensitive to the heterogeneity of gambling subtypes.

To maintain genome integrity, DNA replication is executed and regulated by a complex molecular network of numerous proteins, including helicases and cell cycle checkpoint regulators. RTEL1 deficiency retards plant growth, a phenotype including a prolonged S-phase duration and decreased cell proliferation.

Genetic analysis revealed that rtel1 mutant plants show activated cell cycle checkpoints, specific sensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased homologous recombination, but a lack of progressive shortening of telomeres, indicating that RTEL1 functions have only been partially conserved between mammals and plants. Surprisingly, RTEL1 deficiency induces tolerance to the deoxynucleotide-depleting drug hydroxyurea, which could be mimicked by DNA cross-linking agents.

This resistance does not rely on the essential replication checkpoint regulator WEE1 but could be blocked by a mutation in the SOG 1 transcription factor. Gambling in Western and Eastern Europe: the example of Hungary. The history of gambling in post-socialist countries is noticeably different from that of other countries in Europe. The goal of this study was therefore twofold: Firstly, to systematically review all European epidemiological studies related to excessive gambling in the general adult population, and secondly, to provide an overview of the state of gambling in Hungary based on the first ever nationwide representative survey, setting the results against the backdrop of the earlier European studies.

A systematic review was carried out of European gambling studies which focus on a representative adult general population. Pathological gambling was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Lifetime prevalence of excessive gambling problem and pathological gambling in the general adult population of European countries varies between 1.

In Hungary, the prevalence of problem gambling is 1. The socio-demographic characteristics of the results are similar to those of other European countries. Using epidemiological data from the general adult populations of two post-socialist nations, it was possible to compare the results with data from 12 other European countries. Based on the data available, the extremely rapid liberation of the gambling market in the post-socialist countries has led to a similarly swift escalation in associated gambling problems.

Shaping Adolescent Gambling Behavior. Surveyed the incidence of casino gambling by adolescents. Results indicated that 64 percent of the students at one Atlantic City high school had gambled at the casinos. The dangers of shaping compulsive gambling behavior through societal acceptance of legalized gambling are discussed.

Gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others of problem gamblers in Finland: cross-sectional population studies in and This study compares past-year gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others CSOs of problem gamblers in Finland by age, from and The data were weighted, based on gender, age and region of residence. We measured the past-year gambling frequency using a categorical variable, while gambling severity was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen.

We identified CSOs by a single question including seven response options. Chi-Squared and Fisher's exact tests were used. Overall, the past-year gambling frequency change was statistically significant between and Among year-old Finnish people, the proportion of non-gamblers decreased.

Yet, among year-old respondents, non- gambling increased and gambling problems decreased. Among year olds, the proportion of close ones with gambling problems also decreased. On the other hand, the proportion of family members with gambling problems increased among the year olds.

The increase in adult gambling participation was mainly explained by infrequent gambling. The proportion of gambling problems from the gamblers' and CSOs' perspective remained unchanged, yet significant changes were observed within age groups.

The short-term changes in under-age gambling problems were desirable. Future studies should explore the adaptation and access hypotheses alongside gambling problems. Disordered gambling , type of gambling and gambling involvement in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between types of gambling and disordered gambling , with and without controlling for gambling involvement i.

The sample included residents, aged 16 or older, recruited from 10 randomly selected addresses. Post-facto weighting to produce a nationally representative sample yielded observations. The BGPS included four primary types of measures: participation in gambling during the past 12 months and during the past 7 days , disordered gambling assessments, attitudes toward gambling and descriptive information. Results: Statistically controlling for gambling involvement substantially reduced or eliminated all statistically significant relationships between types of gambling and disordered gambling.

Conclusions: Gambling involvement is an important predictor of disordered gambling status. Our analysis indicates that greater gambling involvement better characterizes disordered gambling than does any specific type of gambling. Background: Gambling disorder GD is characterized by a significant lack of self-control and is associated with impulsivity-related personality traits.

It is also linked to deficits in emotional regulation and frequently co-occurs with anxiety and depression symptoms. There is also evidence that emotional dysregulation may play a mediatory role between GD and psychopathological symptomatology. Few studies have reported the outcomes of psychological interventions that specifically address these underlying processes.

Objectives: To assess the utility of the Playmancer platform, a serious video game, as an additional therapy tool in a CBT intervention for GD, and to estimate pre-post changes in measures of impulsivity, anger expression and psychopathological symptomatology. Method: The sample comprised a single group of 16 male treatment-seeking individuals with severe GD diagnosis.

Therapy intervention consisted of 16 group weekly CBT sessions and, concurrently, 10 additional weekly sessions of a serious video game. Results: After the intervention, significant changes were observed in several measures of impulsivity, anger expression and other psychopathological symptoms.

Dropout and relapse rates during treatment were similar to those described in the literature for CBT. Conclusion: Complementing CBT interventions for GD with a specific therapy approach like a serious video game might be helpful in addressing certain underlying factors which are usually difficult to change, including impulsivity and anger expression.

Gambling disorder GD is characterized by a significant lack of self-control and is associated with impulsivity-related personality traits. To assess the utility of the Playmancer platform, a serious video game, as an additional therapy tool in a CBT intervention for GD, and to estimate pre-post changes in measures of impulsivity, anger expression and psychopathological symptomatology. The sample comprised a single group of 16 male treatment-seeking individuals with severe GD diagnosis.

After the intervention, significant changes were observed in several measures of impulsivity, anger expression and other psychopathological symptoms. Complementing CBT interventions for GD with a specific therapy approach like a serious video game might be helpful in addressing certain underlying factors which are usually difficult to change, including impulsivity and anger expression.

The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling , and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample.

These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.

Gambling behavior is partly the result of varied motivations leading individuals to participate in gambling activities. Specific motivational profiles are found in gamblers, and gambling motives are closely linked to the development of cognitive distortions. This cross-sectional study aimed to predict cognitive distortions from gambling motives in poker players.

The population was recruited in online gambling forums. Participants reported gambling at least once a week. Univariate analyses showed that cognitive distortions were independently predicted by overall gambling motives These data are consistent with the following theoretical process model: gambling motives lead individuals to practice and repeat the gambling experience, which may lead them to develop cognitive distortions, which in turn favor problem gambling.

This study opens up new research perspectives to understand better the mechanisms underlying gambling practice and has clinical implications in terms of prevention and treatment. Disordered gambling among Chinese casino employees. A previous study suggests that casino employees are at higher risk for disordered gambling than non-casino employees. The present study examined the cognitive correlates of the gambling involvement of Chinese casino employees.

These potential cognitive correlates included attitudes toward the gaming industry and gambling activities, perceived job meaningfulness, and job stress. Path analysis showed that attitude toward the gaming industry had a positive impact on job meaningfulness, which largely explained variances of job stress among casino employees. Job stress had a significant, but weak, direct impact on disordered gambling. Though causality between variables cannot be confirmed, this study provided insights into the impacts of cognitive factors on gambling involvement among Chinese front-line employees in the gaming industry.

Implications of the findings were also discussed. The purpose of this exploratory, phenomenological-hermeneutic study was to explore the experience of non-problem gambling by older adults. Twelve older gamblers were identified as non-problem gamblers using two gambling screens and participated in in-depth interviews about their experience of gambling. Two major themes emerged from the interviews:…. Disordered gambling in adolescents : epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

Rapid expansion of legalized gambling has been associated with increased rates of gambling disorders among adults and adolescents worldwide. Despite increasing prevalence rates of gambling disorders, little research is available on how to treat such disorders in adolescents.

Much of what is known about how to treat adolescent problem and pathological gambling comes from research on psychosocial and psychopharmacologic treatments for adult pathological gambling. Risk factors for adolescent gambling disorders include male gender, alcohol and drug use, deviant peers, family history of gambling , and impulsive behavior.

While several risk factors characterize disordered gambling among adolescents, the extent to which these characteristics are related remains to be determined. In terms of screening for adolescent problem and pathological gambling , several instruments designed to reflect the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling are available.

Psychosocial approaches used to treat adult pathological gambling include Gamblers Anonymous, cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT , and motivational enhancement therapy MET. Among adolescents, CBT as well as an eclectic therapy have been helpful in reducing problematic gambling behavior. In terms of pharmacotherapy, three classes of psychotropic drugs have been used to treat adult pathological gambling - serotonin reuptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists, and mood stabilizers.

While some of these pharmacotherapies have been efficacious in treating adult pathological gambling , additional double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine the long-term effectiveness of these treatments. No known study has evaluated the use of psychopharmacologic agents in treating adolescent pathological gambling. Possible reasons for the lack of research on. Gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.

To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation.

Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in Finally, i am ok with the government borrowing money to kick in this system, which, after it takes off, will become self-supporting through a bearable heal care tax on each citizen according to income? Top 7 potential rethe selection of a home is an emotional bwin app decision, and it should be.

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The Brazilian Congress has debated the current prohibitions and many developments have occurred that may see the existing online gambling laws modified in the near future. Since , the Senate Bill No. Essentially, if successful, Brazil could see a fully regulated online esports and sports betting market open up without the legal ambiguity. For now, it is perfectly safe and secure for Brazilians to bet on esports at offshore licensed and regulated EU online sportsbooks while the country gets its act together.

Brazilians betting on esports, either on their computer or their mobile phones, are never punished with fines or penalties and there have been no publicly recorded high-profile incidents which could lead people to think otherwise. Most of the sportsbooks we recommend Brazilian esports bettors register an account with offer a variety of globally trusted and secure payment methods such as bank transfer, credit and debit cards, along with local options popular in Brazil such as AstroPay and Boleto Bancario.

These include:. Depositing money into your chosen online sportbook to bet on esports is an extremely simple process. You can process withdrawals in the same section once you have won any bets, though some services are unable to be used as both a deposit and withdrawal method — double check what services are available and preferable for your use prior to depositing.

According to insights from NewZoo , there are over Brazil is one of the most fascinating video gaming markets in the world. Despite long-term economic problems, there are over Clearly, Brazil loves its esports and video games. Brazilian players are recommended to check out Bumbet , one of our top rated and reviewed esports betting sites for the Latin American region. Home Best esports betting sites for Brazil. The top legal online betting sites for Brazil in are: Best Brazilian esports betting sites.

Visit BetOnline. Join GGBet Now. Visit Betway. Visit Sports. Visit Arcanebet. Visit Betway Betway Review. Visit Sports Sportsbook Review. Visit Arcanebet ArcaneBet Review. King of Mobile! Your Bid. Bwin offer what they call enhanced accas, which is where certain bets are put together in a ready-made accumulator bet for you.

These accumulators have had their odds boosted so they offer better value for money than they would separately. Other selections include tennis or rugby bets that have been combined to create exciting odds deals. One of the most famous of the slot games on offer is Starburst, which is created by industry giant NetEnt.

This space themed game is perfect for those who love a five reel slot game with lots of extra free spins and expanding wilds. As well as slot games, you will also find a great table selection. There are blackjack tournaments which cover low rollers and high roller bets. Bwin does not have a Facebook page of their own, but there are a couple of fan pages on there that discuss the brand. What Bwin do have though, is a Twitter presence which has over 66, followers.

Possibly the most important part of our Bwin review are the payment options. Withdrawals are fee free from Bwin, but your payment provider may charge you for the privilege of processing your withdrawal. This is usually true of ewallets such as PayPal and Neteller, so always check with your payment provider before making any withdrawals. Withdrawals at Bwin vary in the time it takes to process. It takes Bwin 24 hours to process a withdrawal, but after this you they aim to get your withdrawal to you within hours.

This is in line with most other bookmakers. The first is to telephone live customer support on the number listed below. This way you can talk through your Bwin problem with someone directly. The alternative, which is by far the quickest contact method is to use live chat to speak to a customer advisor. When it comes to gambling licenses, few compare to one from the UK Gambling Commission. Their stringent tests ensure that a bookmaker is reliable and trustworthy and their games are impartial, regardless of who places wagers on them.

Because Bwin is located in Gibraltar they also hold a license from the Gibraltar Gambling Commissioner and display their license numbers prominently on their website. Personal data is protected using SSL encryption and is stored in a secure firewalled data centre for protection. The bookmaker also states that their webpages are encrypted and the business works within ISO data practices. As well as protecting your personal information, Bwin also has a responsibility to protect players that are deemed vulnerable.

That includes underage gamblers and players who believe they have a gambling problem. Bwin goes to great lengths to weed out underage gambling by providing security checks when a person attempts to register on their website, and again should any payment be processed. For those struggling with gambling, Bwin work in conjunction with GamCare to provide support to these players. They also have a checklist on their website so players can assess their own level of risk to problem gambling.

Self exclusion can last for up to six months to give players time to reassess their gambling. When it comes to betting markets, Bwin have a wide selection which should appease most bettors. There are 35 sports in total, and these cover everything from the commonly found sports such as football, cricket and horse racing, to more obscure markets such as Alpine skiing, futsal and handball. Take football for example, which on Bwin is offered on 33 different regions throughout the world including Japan and Vietnam, Estonia and Belarus.

Horse racing is another international sport with Bwin listing races from the UK, Ireland and South Africa in their betting markets. Rugby union again offers international games with European, Six Nations and World Cup action all available at the click of a button. There are lots of different bet types available to the average punter.

You have single bets which are wagered on one selection and one outcome. You have accumulator bets where you pick several selections and add them to one bet. Each of these selections needs to win for the bet to pay out. Of these you have doubles, trebles and quads as well as bigger culminations of bets such as trixies and heinz. These often combine double, treble and quad bets in such a way that you cover most betting outcomes. In a trixie bet, for example, you wager on three horses and place four bets consisting of three double bets and a treble bet.

Maximum deposit limits depend on the payment method. Users of other chosen payment methods will have significantly lower max deposit limits. Withdrawal limits can be changed and may be subject to change. Maximum payout amounts also vary according to the market of your choosing. These are overview, which as the name suggests, gives an overview of the current betting markets available. The third view is multiview, allowing you to drag across different events into the viewing section so you can keep an eye on more than one bet at once.

This nifty tool is certainly a high point of the Bwin live betting experience. Players can also use the betting calendar to see which live betting markets are coming up in the following week — perfect if you like to plan your bets in advance. Live streaming at Bwin allows you to experience wagering like no other. You can see which bets are streamed by looking out for the yellow television icon. Not quite the same as watching an event live, but not terrible either.

Bwin has a prominent sportsbook, offering customers an extensive range of markets and a wide selection of bet types. The odds on display, at time of writing, were competitive in terms of industry standards. Bwin excels when it comes to live betting and streaming Here, you will certainly not be disappointed.

This allows punters to be in amongst the action and our Bwin ratings for this is 5-star. Punters can expect a very reliable sportsbook with all the added functionalities that come with online bookies nowadays! During our review we found them to be consistently good across the board, only dropping a point here or there for minor issues.

Overall, the bookmaker gave a great showing, particularly when it comes to website security and the safety of their players. This level of consistency passed over to their mobile app too, which was available to both iOS and Android players. By including one of these, Bwin could have offered players an incentive to spend a little more.

Overall, though, it was very difficult to find anything negative to say about the bookmaker. Their live betting was a particular high point for us, offering a wide range of betting markets and three different views to monitor your bets. Live streaming was available on some wagers to bring you closer to the action. We also loved the choice of payment methods on the website. There were 35 offered in total, with a large selection of these available to UK players. As known from:. About BettingTips.

About the Team. Contains commercial content. Top 10 Bonuses. Unfortunately, Bwin is not active in United Kingdom. Instead, we recommend the following top 3 alternatives:. Last Updated on:. He's a genius at predicting football game results.

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In , the Brazilian government failed to block their citizens from processing transactions related to online gambling, though since the government did ban online sports betting transactions processed via credit and debit cards. The Brazilian Congress has debated the current prohibitions and many developments have occurred that may see the existing online gambling laws modified in the near future.

Since , the Senate Bill No. Essentially, if successful, Brazil could see a fully regulated online esports and sports betting market open up without the legal ambiguity. For now, it is perfectly safe and secure for Brazilians to bet on esports at offshore licensed and regulated EU online sportsbooks while the country gets its act together. Brazilians betting on esports, either on their computer or their mobile phones, are never punished with fines or penalties and there have been no publicly recorded high-profile incidents which could lead people to think otherwise.

Most of the sportsbooks we recommend Brazilian esports bettors register an account with offer a variety of globally trusted and secure payment methods such as bank transfer, credit and debit cards, along with local options popular in Brazil such as AstroPay and Boleto Bancario.

These include:. Depositing money into your chosen online sportbook to bet on esports is an extremely simple process. You can process withdrawals in the same section once you have won any bets, though some services are unable to be used as both a deposit and withdrawal method — double check what services are available and preferable for your use prior to depositing. According to insights from NewZoo , there are over Brazil is one of the most fascinating video gaming markets in the world.

Despite long-term economic problems, there are over Clearly, Brazil loves its esports and video games. Brazilian players are recommended to check out Bumbet , one of our top rated and reviewed esports betting sites for the Latin American region. Home Best esports betting sites for Brazil. The top legal online betting sites for Brazil in are: Best Brazilian esports betting sites. Visit BetOnline. Join GGBet Now. Visit Betway. Visit Sports. Visit Arcanebet. Visit Betway Betway Review.

Visit Sports Sportsbook Review. Visit Arcanebet ArcaneBet Review. King of Mobile! Thankfully, the site was really easy to use with each type of bet available from the homepage. After registering, we found the promotions page.

There were a few promotions available, although we were disappointed to find some were not UK based. Upon finding a suitable bonus we made our first deposit, again, all from the homepage. Is Bwin reliable? It was a simple three-step process that saw us add our personal details, create a username and password and then add our card details to get started with betting. We were betting in no time, so our Bwin ratings reflect the great service we received. The bonus is calculated on net losses between Wednesday and Sunday on a weekly basis.

The bonus amount is returned to you on Monday and must be spent by Tuesday at This is a simple bonus, which encourages players to wager on a betting market that maybe they would usually overlook. As such, the deal scored well in the Bwin ratings. There are seven sports to choose from in Virtual Sport betting and each and every one of these is available for the bookmaker bonus. Virtual football, virtual tennis, horses, greyhounds, trotting and velodrome bets are all available.

Once the qualifying period of Wednesday to Sunday is completed, the total losses of your wagers will be calculated. Bets placed using a Bwin FreeBet token will not be added to the figure. Bets that are cashed out early will not count, nor will cancelled bets. What WILL count though, is bets from the web, mobile and tablet. The bonus offer then repeats for another week with the same terms and conditions.

For another decent sports bonus, make sure you check out our Fun88 review. This means there is very little room to move when it comes to changing the betting odds. One way that bookmakers try to amend their odds to make them look more competitive is through odds boosts on certain markets.

This is what Bwin does with their accumulators. Bwin offer what they call enhanced accas, which is where certain bets are put together in a ready-made accumulator bet for you. These accumulators have had their odds boosted so they offer better value for money than they would separately.

Other selections include tennis or rugby bets that have been combined to create exciting odds deals. One of the most famous of the slot games on offer is Starburst, which is created by industry giant NetEnt. This space themed game is perfect for those who love a five reel slot game with lots of extra free spins and expanding wilds.

As well as slot games, you will also find a great table selection. There are blackjack tournaments which cover low rollers and high roller bets. Bwin does not have a Facebook page of their own, but there are a couple of fan pages on there that discuss the brand.

What Bwin do have though, is a Twitter presence which has over 66, followers. Possibly the most important part of our Bwin review are the payment options. Withdrawals are fee free from Bwin, but your payment provider may charge you for the privilege of processing your withdrawal. This is usually true of ewallets such as PayPal and Neteller, so always check with your payment provider before making any withdrawals. Withdrawals at Bwin vary in the time it takes to process.

It takes Bwin 24 hours to process a withdrawal, but after this you they aim to get your withdrawal to you within hours. This is in line with most other bookmakers. The first is to telephone live customer support on the number listed below. This way you can talk through your Bwin problem with someone directly. The alternative, which is by far the quickest contact method is to use live chat to speak to a customer advisor.

When it comes to gambling licenses, few compare to one from the UK Gambling Commission. Their stringent tests ensure that a bookmaker is reliable and trustworthy and their games are impartial, regardless of who places wagers on them. Because Bwin is located in Gibraltar they also hold a license from the Gibraltar Gambling Commissioner and display their license numbers prominently on their website.

Personal data is protected using SSL encryption and is stored in a secure firewalled data centre for protection. The bookmaker also states that their webpages are encrypted and the business works within ISO data practices. As well as protecting your personal information, Bwin also has a responsibility to protect players that are deemed vulnerable.

That includes underage gamblers and players who believe they have a gambling problem. Bwin goes to great lengths to weed out underage gambling by providing security checks when a person attempts to register on their website, and again should any payment be processed. For those struggling with gambling, Bwin work in conjunction with GamCare to provide support to these players.

They also have a checklist on their website so players can assess their own level of risk to problem gambling. Self exclusion can last for up to six months to give players time to reassess their gambling. When it comes to betting markets, Bwin have a wide selection which should appease most bettors. There are 35 sports in total, and these cover everything from the commonly found sports such as football, cricket and horse racing, to more obscure markets such as Alpine skiing, futsal and handball.

Take football for example, which on Bwin is offered on 33 different regions throughout the world including Japan and Vietnam, Estonia and Belarus. Horse racing is another international sport with Bwin listing races from the UK, Ireland and South Africa in their betting markets. Rugby union again offers international games with European, Six Nations and World Cup action all available at the click of a button. There are lots of different bet types available to the average punter.

You have single bets which are wagered on one selection and one outcome. You have accumulator bets where you pick several selections and add them to one bet. Each of these selections needs to win for the bet to pay out. Of these you have doubles, trebles and quads as well as bigger culminations of bets such as trixies and heinz.

These often combine double, treble and quad bets in such a way that you cover most betting outcomes. In a trixie bet, for example, you wager on three horses and place four bets consisting of three double bets and a treble bet. Maximum deposit limits depend on the payment method. Users of other chosen payment methods will have significantly lower max deposit limits.

Withdrawal limits can be changed and may be subject to change. Maximum payout amounts also vary according to the market of your choosing. These are overview, which as the name suggests, gives an overview of the current betting markets available. The third view is multiview, allowing you to drag across different events into the viewing section so you can keep an eye on more than one bet at once. This nifty tool is certainly a high point of the Bwin live betting experience.

Players can also use the betting calendar to see which live betting markets are coming up in the following week — perfect if you like to plan your bets in advance. Live streaming at Bwin allows you to experience wagering like no other. You can see which bets are streamed by looking out for the yellow television icon. Not quite the same as watching an event live, but not terrible either. Bwin has a prominent sportsbook, offering customers an extensive range of markets and a wide selection of bet types.

The odds on display, at time of writing, were competitive in terms of industry standards. Bwin excels when it comes to live betting and streaming Here, you will certainly not be disappointed. This allows punters to be in amongst the action and our Bwin ratings for this is 5-star. Punters can expect a very reliable sportsbook with all the added functionalities that come with online bookies nowadays! During our review we found them to be consistently good across the board, only dropping a point here or there for minor issues.

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