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In this paper, cellulose aerogel with flame retardant was produced from pruned branches and bushes of blueberries wastes PBBW. Firstly, cellulose raw material these wastes was obtained and then, cellulose aerogel via freeze-drying, followed by cellulose hydrogel production. The present cellulose aerogel has excellent flame retardancy, which can extinguish within s. By the way, it was inferred thermal stability performance of cellulose aerogel could be efficient potential thermal insulating material.

Besides, this process are sustainable, easily available at low cost and suitable for industrial applications. Oily wastewater caused by industrial production and crude oil leakage has attracted worldwide attention. Here, a thermo- and pH dual-responsive biodegradable cellulose- based aerogel for oil-water separation was designed and prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization ATRP of non-fluorine-containing 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate DMAEMA.

What's more, the cellulose- based aerogel is green, low cost, and environmental friendly, which makes it a promising candidate to be used for oil-water separation. Ambient Dried Aerogels. A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies.

Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel , where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions high temperature and high pressure to be dried.

Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation MLI materials possible.

This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance.

The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

Full Text Available Nanocellulose has high specific surface area, hydration properties, and ease of derivatization to prepare protease sensors. A Human Neutrophil Elastase sensor designed with a nanocellulose aerogel transducer surface derived from cotton is compared with cotton filter paper, and nanocrystalline cellulose versions of the sensor.

The nanocellulosic aerogel was found to have a cellulose II structure. The spatiotemporal relation of crystallite surface to peptide-cellulose conformation is discussed in light of observed enzyme kinetics. A higher substrate binding affinity Km of elastase was observed with the nanocellulose aerogel and nanocrystalline peptide-cellulose conjugates than with the solution- based elastase substrate.

Models demonstrating the orientation of cellulose to peptide O6-hydroxymethyl rotamers of the conjugates at the surface of the cellulose crystal suggest the relative accessibility of the peptide-cellulose conjugates for enzyme active site binding. Edwards, J. Nanocellulose has high specific surface area, hydration properties, and ease of derivatization to prepare protease sensors. Technical applications of aerogels. Aerogel materials posses such a wide variety of exceptional properties that a striking number of applications have developed for them.

Many of the commercial applications of aerogels such as catalysts, thermal insulation, windows, and particle detectors are still under development and new application as have been publicized since the ISA4 Conference in e. More applications are evolving as the scientific and engineering community becomes familiar with the unusual and exceptional physical properties of aerogels , there are also scientific and technical application, as well.

This paper discusses a variety of applications under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for which several types of aerogels are formed in custom sizes and shapes. Particular discussions will focus on the uses of aerogels for physics experiments which rely on the exceptional, sometimes unique, properties of aerogels.

Flexible Carbon Aerogels. Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability.

In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network.

A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels. Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepa from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. Williams, Martha K. Inventor ; Smith, Trent M. Inventor ; Fesmire, James E. Inventor ; Roberson, Luke B. Inventor ; Clayton, LaNetra M.

The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

Aerogels Materials as Space Debris Collectors. Full Text Available Material degradation due to the specific space environment becomes a key parameter for space missions. The use of large surface of brittle materials on satellites can produce, if impacted by hypervelocity particles, ejected volumes of mater times higher than the impacting one. The presented work is devoted to the use of silica aerogels as passive detectors. Aerogels have been exposed to the low earth orbit of the ISS for 18 months.

The study describes the aerogels process and the choice of synthesis parameters in such a way to get expected features in terms of porosity, mechanical properties, internal stresses, and transparency. Low-density aerogels 0. The control of transparency necessary to see and identify particles and fragments collected is obtained using a base catalysis during gel synthesis.

After return to earth, the aerogels samples have been observed using optical microscopy to detect and quantify craters on the exposed surface. First results obtained on a small part of the aerogels indicate a large number of debris collected in the materials.

Silica aerogel Cerenkov counter. In order to obtain silica aerogel radiators of good quality, the prescription used by Saclay group has been developed. We have done several experiments using beams from KEK. It turned out that these modules had excellent quality. The production rate of silica aerogel in KEK is 15 -- 20 litres a week. Silica aerogel modules of 20 x 10 x 3 cm 3 having the refractive index of 1.

Methodes to produce silica aerogel with higher refractive index than 1. NASA is interested in the development of strong lightweight materials for the dual role of thermal insulator and structural component for space vehicles; freeing more weight for useful payloads. Aerogels are very-low density materials 0.

However, aerogels are extremely fragile. For practical application of aerogels , one must increase strength without compromising the physical properties attributed to low density. This has been achieved by templated growth of an epoxy polymer layer that crosslinks the "pearl necklace" network of nanoparticles: the framework of a typical silica aerogel.

The requirement for conformal accumulation of the epoxy crosslinker is reaction both with the surface of silica and with itself. After cross-linking, the strength of a typical aerogel monolith increases by a factor of , in the expense of only a 2-fold increase in density. Strength is increased further by coupling residual unreacted epoxides with diamine. During this process, reduced graphene oxide RGO was formed, and due to the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on its surface, it not only improves the electronic conductivity of the cathode but also effectively inhibits the polysulfides dissolution and shuttle.

The introduced activated carbon allowed for lateral and vertical connection between individual graphene sheets, completing the formation of a stable three-dimensionally 3D interconnected graphene framework. Polyurethane sponge-reinforced silica aerogels based on tetraethoxysilane TEOS and methyltrimethoxysilane MTMS were fabricated by a facile method through sol-gel reaction followed by ambient pressure drying.

In sponge-reinforced silica aerogels , nanoporous aerogel aggregates fill in the pores of polyurethane sponge. The sponge-reinforced aerogels are hydrophobic and oleophilic and show extremely high absorption for machine oil In addition, the sponge-reinforced aerogel composites exhibit notable improvements with regards to mechanical properties. Specially, sponge-reinforced silica aerogels based on MTMS drastically shrank upon loading and then recovered to the original size when unloaded.

The property differences of the sponge-reinforced silica aerogels caused by the two precursors were discussed in terms of morphologies, pore size distributions and chemical structure. Chemical modification of graphene aerogels for electrochemical capacitor applications. Graphene aerogel is a relatively new type of aerogel that is ideal for energy storage applications because of its large surface area, high electrical conductivity and good chemical stability.

Also, three dimensional interconnected macropores offer many advantages such as low density, fast ion and mass transfer, and easy access to storage sites. Such features allow graphene aerogels to be intensively applied for electrochemical capacitor applications. Despite the growing interest in graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors, however, the graphene aerogels still suffer from their low capacitive performances and high fragility.

Both relatively low capacitance and brittleness of physically crosslinked graphene aerogels remain a critical challenge. Until now, a number of alternative attempts have been devoted to overcome these shortcomings. In this perspective, we summarize the recent research progress towards the development of advanced graphene aerogel-based electrochemical capacitors according to the different approaches e. Then, the recently proposed chemical strategies to improve the capacitive performances and mechanical durability of graphene aerogels for practical applications are highlighted.

Finally, the current challenges and perspectives in this emerging material are also discussed. Highly stretchable carbon aerogels. Carbon aerogels demonstrate wide applications for their ultralow density, rich porosity, and multifunctionalities. Their compressive elasticity has been achieved by different carbons. However, reversibly high stretchability of neat carbon aerogels is still a great challenge owing to their extremely dilute brittle interconnections and poorly ductile cells.

The ultralight carbon aerogels with both stretchability and compressibility were designed as strain sensors for logic identification of sophisticated shape conversions. Our methodology paves the way to highly stretchable carbon and neat inorganic materials with extensive applications in aerospace, smart robots, and wearable devices. B1 Aerogels. This objective is in very good agreement with the general scope of task 18 but where Task Construction of an aerogel DGU and measurement of key performance parameters.

These are values that can not be simultaneously reached By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very In-tube loading of Pt particles, compared with out-tube loading, considerably improved the catalytic activity. SiO2 aerogel was also synthesized and affixed on TC4 titanium alloy to inhabit thermal flow. The microstructures, phase compositions and thermal insulation performance of three coatings were analyzed in detail.

The coating thickness and species were found to influence the heat insulation ability. However, SiO2 aerogel was the best one among them and it can be taken as protection material on TC4 alloys. In outer space, SiO2 aerogel can meet the need of thermal insulation of TC4 of high-speed aircraft. This paper discusses the development of aluminosilicates aerogels as scaffolds for Ag0 nanoparticles used for chemisorption of I2 g.

Iodine loading in the thiolated Al-Si-O aerogel was 0. The control of Ag uptake over solution residence time and [AgNO3] demonstrates the ability to customize the Ag-loading in the base sorbent to regulate the capacity of iodine chemisorption.

Consolidation experimental results are also presented. Refractive index inhomogeneity within an aerogel block. Evaluating local inhomogeneities of the refractive index inside aerogel blocks to be used as Cherenkov radiator is important for a high energy physics experiment where angular resolution is crucial.

Two approaches are described and compared. The first one is based on the bending of a laser beam induced by refractive index gradients along directions normal to the unperturbed optical path. The second method exploits the Cherenkov effect itself by shooting an ultra-relativistic collimated electron beam through different points of the aerogel surface. Local refractive index variations result in sizable differences in the Cherenkov photons distribution.

Super insulating aerogel glazing. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows.

Generally, windows This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since We have obtained 2—3—4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30—45 mm.

In , the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density refractive index gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process.

The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype. The gels obtained were dried using a novel process based on an ambient pressure drying. Hexane and hexamethyl-disilazane HMDZ were the solvents used to chemically modify the surface.

In order to assess bioactivity, aerogels , without and with pseudowollastonite particles, were immersed in simulated body fluid SBF for 7 and 14 days. However, as in both cases a lower bioactivity was observed, a biomimetic method was also used to improve it. In this particular method, samples of both materials were immersed in SBF for 7 days followed by their immersion in a more concentrated solution 1.

A thick and homogeneous bonelike apatite layer was formed on the biomimetically treated materials. Thus, bioactivity was successfully improved even on the aerogel with no pseudowollastonite particles. Sin embargo, en ambos casos, se.

Three types of activated CAs were synthesized at activation temperatures of C CA-K , C CA-K , and The results showed that with the increase in activation temperature from to C, the total pore volume and specific surface area sharply increased from 1. However, the values for both these parameters decreased at temperatures above Full Text Available We develop a molecular theory of aqueous electrolyte solution sorbed in a nanoporous carbon aerogel electrode, based on the replica reference interaction site model replica RISM for realistic molecular quenched-annealed systems.

We also briefly review applications of carbon aerogels for supercapacitor and electrochemical separation devices, as well as theoretical and computer modelling of disordered porous materials. The replica RISM integral equation theory yields the microscopic properties of the electrochemical double layer formed at the surface of carbon aerogel nanopores, with due account of chemical specificities of both sorbed electrolyte and carbon aerogel material.

The theory allows for spatial disorder of aerogel pores in the range from micro- to macroscopic size scale. We considered ambient aqueous solution of 1 M sodium chloride sorbed in two model nanoporous carbon aerogels with carbon nanoparticles either arranged into branched chains or randomly distributed.

The long-range correlations of the carbon aerogel nanostructure substantially affect the properties of the electrochemical double layer formed by the solution sorbed in nanopores. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss Aerogels comprise a class of low-density, high porous solid objects consisting of dimensionally quasi-stable self-supported three-dimensional assemblies of nanoparticles.

Aerogels are pursued because of properties above and beyond those of the individual nanoparticles, including low thermal conductivity, low dielectric constant and high acoustic impedance. Possible applications include thermal and vibration insulation, dielectrics for fast electronics, and hosting of functional guests for a wide variety of optical, chemical and electronic applications. Aerogels , however, are extremely fragile materials, hence they have found only limited application in some very specialized environments, for example as Cerenkov radiation detectors in certain types of nuclear reactors, aboard spacecraft as collectors of hypervelocity particles refer to NASA's Stardust program and as thermal insulators on planetary vehicles on Mars refer to Sojourner Rover in and Spirit and Opportunity in Along these lines, the X- Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material that has resolved the fragility problem of traditional native aerogels.

X- Aerogels are made by applying a conformal polymer coating on the surfaces of the skeletal nanoparticles of native aerogels see Scanning Electron Micrographs. Since the relative amounts of the polymeric crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X- Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by the templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by remplated casting of polymer on a nanostructured framework.

The most striking feature of X- Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density still a ultralighweight material , the mechanical strength can be up to times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X- Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. X- Aerogels. Aerogels in Aerospace: An Overview. Full Text Available Aerogels are highly porous structures prepared via a sol-gel process and supercritical drying technology.

Among the classes of aerogels , silica aerogel exhibits the most remarkable physical properties, possessing lower density, thermal conductivity, refractive index, and dielectric constant than any solids. However, when it comes to commercialization, the result is not as expected. It seems that mass production, particularly in the aerospace industry, has dawdled behind. This paper highlights the evolution of aerogels in general and discusses the functions and significances of silica aerogel in previous astronautical applications.

Future outer-space applications have been proposed as per the current research trend. Finally, the implementation of conventional silica aerogel in aeronautics is argued with an alternative known as Maerogel. Refractive index of silica aerogel : Uniformity and dispersion law. Two methods for the measurement of the uniformity of the refractive index n within a single block of silica aerogel are described. One is based on the deflection of a laser beam induced by transverse index gradients.

The second exploits the Cherenkov effect, measuring the emission angle of photons radiated by MeV electrons traversing the aerogel. The beam can scan the full aerogel surface providing information on point to point variations of n. An Xe lamp coupled to a diffraction grating provides the monochromatic source.

This presentation discusses an aerogel antennas communication study using error vector magnitude EVM measurements. The study was performed using 2x4 element polyimide PI aerogel-based phased arrays designed for operation at 5 GHz as transmit Tx and receive Rx antennas separated by a line of sight LOS distance of 8.

As such, PI aerogel antennas with higher gain, larger bandwidth and lower mass than typically used microwave laminates could be suitable to enable aerospace-to- ground communication links with enough channel capacity to support voice, data and video links from CubeSats, unmanned air vehicles UAV , and commercial aircraft.

This paper discusses an aerogel antennas communication study using error vector magnitude EVM measurements. The study was performed using 4x2 element polyimide PI aerogel-based phased arrays designed for operation at 5 GHz as transmit Tx and receive Rx antennas separated by a line of sight LOS distance of 8. As such, PI aerogel antennas with higher gain, larger bandwidth and lower mass than typically used microwave laminates could be suitable to enable aerospace-to-ground communication links with enough channel capacity to support voice, data and video links from cubesats, unmanned air vehicles UAV , and commercial aircraft.

Spray freeze-dried nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels with thermal superinsulating properties. Their structural, mechanical and thermal insulation properties were compared to those of NFC aerogels prepared by conventional freeze-drying CFD. The purpose of this investigation is to develop superinsulating bioaerogels by reducing their pore size.

Severe reduction of the aerogel pore size and skeleton architecture were observed by SEM, aerogels prepared by SFD method show a fibril skeleton morphology, which defines a mesoporous structure. As a consequence, the thermal insulation properties were significantly improved for SFD materials compared to CFD aerogel , reaching values of thermal conductivity as low as 0.

Moreover, NFC aerogels have a thermal conductivity below that of air in ambient conditions, making them one of the best cellulose based thermal superinsulating material. As aerospace applications become ever more demanding, novel insulation materials with lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight and higher use temperature are required to fit the aerospace application needs.

Having nanopores and high porosity, aerogels are superior thermal insulators, among other things. The use of silica aerogels in general is quite restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extereme aerospace environments.

Our research goal is to develop aerogels with better mechanical and environmental stability for a variety of aeronautic and space applications including space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing EDL operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems.

Different type of aerogels including organic-inorganic polymer reinforced hybrid silica- based aerogels , polyimide aerogels and inorganic aluminosilicate aerogels have been developed and examined. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths. A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them.

Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need.

The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins.

The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins or perfluorinated monomers for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength.

Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels. Specific heat, C p , and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base -catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0. Results for both C p T and lambda T confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected Aerogels : II.

Applications in catalysis. Full Text Available Sol-gel synthesis, and the resulting materials xerogels and aerogels are finding increasing application in the synthesis of catalysts, due to their unique characteristics. The most important features of the sol-gel process are: the ability to achieve homogeneity at the molecular level, the introduction of several species in only one step and the ability to stabilize metastable phases.

The supercritical drying process produces aerogels with structural features quite different to conventional materials. Some of these characteristics of aerogels can make them very effective catalysts. Rooftop solar thermal collectors have the potential to meet residential heating demands if deployed efficiently at low solar irradiance i. The efficiency of solar thermal collectors depends on their ability to absorb incoming solar energy and minimize thermal losses.

Most techniques utilize a vacuum gap between the solar absorber and the surroundings to eliminate conduction and convection losses, in combination with surface coatings to minimize reradiation losses. Here, we present an alternative approach that operates at atmospheric pressure with simple, black, absorbing surfaces.

Silica based aerogels coated on black surfaces have the potential to act as simple and inexpensive solar thermal collectors because of their high transmission to solar radiation and low transmission to thermal radiation. To demonstrate their heat-trapping properties, we fabricated tetramethyl orthosilicate- based silica aerogels. To provide a deeper understanding of the link between aerogel properties and overall efficiency, we developed a coupled radiative-conductive heat transfer model and used it to predict solar thermal performance.

This study sheds light on the applicability of silica aerogels on black coatings for solar thermal collectors and offers design priorities for next-generation solar thermal aerogels. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels.

Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid 4He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained.

Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii. Full Text Available Silica aerogels are highly porous 3D nanostructures and have exhibited excellent physio-chemical properties.

Although silica aerogels have broad potential in many fields, the poor mechanical properties greatly limit further applications. In this study, we have applied the finite volume method FVM method to calculate the mechanical properties of silica aerogels with different geometric properties such as particle size, pore size, ligament diameter, etc.

The FVM simulation results show that a power law correlation existing between relative density and mechanical properties elastic modulus and yield stress of silica aerogels , which are consistent with experimental and literature studies. In addition, depending on the relative densities, different strategies are proposed in order to synthesize silica aerogels with better mechanical performance by adjusting the distribution of pore size and ligament diameter of aerogels.

Finally, the results suggest that it is possible to synthesize silica aerogels with ultra-low density as well as high strength and stiffness as long as the textural features are well controlled. It is believed that the FVM simulation methodology could be a valuable tool to study mechanical performance of silica aerogel based materials in the future. Silica aerogels are highly porous 3D nanostructures and have exhibited excellent physio-chemical properties.

Preparation and characterization of silica aerogels from diatomite via ambient pressure drying. The silica aerogels were successfully fabricated under ambient pressure from diatomite. The influence of different dilution ratios of diatomite filtrate on physical properties of aerogels were studied. The results indicate that the filtrate diluted with distilled water in a proportion of 1: 2 could give silica aerogels in the largest size with highest transparency.

The obtained aerogels with density of 0. Moreover, the peak pore size resided at 9 nm. The obtained aerogel has good mechanical properties. Functionalized silica aerogels for gas-phase purification, sensing, and catalysis: A review. Silica aerogels have a rich history and a unique, fascinating gas-phase chemistry that has lent them to many diverse applications. This review starts with a brief discussion of the fundamental issues driving the movement of gases in silica aerogels and then proceeds to provide an overview of the work that has been done with respect to the purification of gases, sensing of individual gases, and uses of silica aerogels as catalysts for gas-phase reactions.

Salient features of the research behind these different applications are presented, and, where appropriate, critical aspects that affect the practical use of the aerogels are noted. Specific sections under the gas-purification category focus on the removal of airborne nanoparticles, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur gases and radioactive iodine from gas streams. The use of silica aerogels as sensors for humidity, oxygen, hydrocarbons, volatile acids and bases , various non-ammoniacal nitrogen gases, and viral particles is discussed.

With respect to catalysis, the demonstrated use of silica aerogels as supports for oxidation, Fischer-Tropsch, alkane isomerization, and hydrogenation reactions is reviewed, along with a section on untested catalytic formulations involving silica aerogels. A short section focuses on recent developments in thermomolecular Knudsen compressor pumps using silica aerogel membranes.

The review continues with an overview of the production methods, locations of manufacturing facilities globally, and a brief discussion of the economics before concluding with a few remarks about the present and future trends revealed by the work presented. Refractive index dispersion law of silica aerogel. This paper presents measurements of the refractive index of a hygroscopic silica aerogel block at several wavelengths.

This is an important input for design and operation of RICH detectors with silica aerogel radiator. Oxidation-mediated chitosan as additives for creation of chitosan aerogels with diverse three-dimensional interconnected skeletons. However, engineering morphology-controllable biomass aerogels still represents a great challenge. Here we present a facile solution to synthesize chitosan aerogels having distinguished textures by reacting oxidized chitosan with formaldehyde and chitosan sol.

In more detail, chitosan was chemically oxidized using two types of oxidation agents such as ammonium persulphate SPD and sodium periodate APS to obtain corresponding oxidized chitosan, subsequently cross-linked with chitosan solution containing formaldehyde to harvest SPD-oxidized chitosan aerogels SCAs and APS-SPD-oxidized ones ASCAs after aging, solvent exchange and supercritical drying processes. We found that the morphologies of as-prepared chitosan aerogels are strongly dependent upon the oxidation pattern towards chitosan.

The structural textures of SCAs and ASCAs appear nanoflake-like and nanofiber-like structures, which may be related to spatial freedom of active groups located in chitosan. Selected area electron diffraction analysis reveals that the crystalline properties of chitosan aerogels generally appear the serious deterioration comparing to raw chitosan owing to their interconnected skeletal structure formation.

The occurrence of characteristic groups displays cross-linked chain construction by using chemical state measurements such as FT-IR and XPS. Further, a plausible mechanism for controlling morphology of chitosan aerogels is also established.

This new family of method for creation of chitosan aerogels may open up a perspective for biomass aerogels with controllable textures. Zhang, Sizhao, E-mail: bule-soul hotmail. To increase the metal loading, the impregnation-drying-reduction cycle of the SEA method can be repeated several times, either with fresh Pt precursor solution or with the solution recycled from the previous cycle. Finally, the procedure can be simplified by combination of the SEA technique with dry impregnation, leading to no Pt loss during the procedure.

Silica aerogel and space astrophysics. Silica aerogels have been produced in large and transparent blocks for space astrophysics experiments since the beginning of the 's. They were used in cosmic ray experiments on board balloons by the Saclay group. A new space venture where aerogel Cerenkov radiators will play a decisive role is currently being prepared by a large collaboration of European and US Institutes.

It will be part of the so-called International Solar Polar Mission ISPM which will explore the heliosphere over the full range of solar latitudes from the ecliptic equatorial plane to the magnetic poles of the sun. Comments on properties and long term behaviour of silica aerogel cerenkov radiators in space environment are given.

Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels. Polyimide PI aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations.

Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals CNCs. CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost.

This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having wt of CNC. Results will be discussed. Three-dimensional multichannel aerogel of carbon quantum dots for high-performance supercapacitors. Compared to the supercapacitor based on the CQD-free aerogel , the supercapacitor fabricated with the CQD aerogel showed fold higher specific capacitance Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements.

The specific heat C p and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base -catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior of SiO2 are most likely not due to fractal behavior Our data imply important differences between the physical mechanisms dominating the low-temperature behavior of aerogels and dense glasses, respectively.

From our analysis we also conclude that the low-temperature properties of amorphous KFeSbTe3: A quaternary chalcogenide aerogel for preferential adsorption of polarizable hydrocarbons and gases. The aerogel has an exceptionally large surface area m2 g-1 which is amongst the highest. Tabata, Makoto, E-mail: makoto hepburn. This paper presents recent progress in the development and mass production of large-area hydrophobic silica aerogels for use as radiators in the aerogel-based ring-imaging Cherenkov A-RICH counter, which will be installed in the forward end cap of the Belle II detector.

The refractive index of the installed aerogel Cherenkov radiators is approximately 1. We proposed to fill the large end-cap region area 3. Guided by the test production results, we decided to manufacture aerogels by the conventional method and are currently proceeding with mass production. Mechanical performance and thermal stability of glass fiber reinforced silica aerogel composites based on co-precursor method by freeze drying.

In order to maintain the integrity, glass fiber GF reinforced silica aerogel composites were synthesized using methltrimethoxysilane MTMS and water glass co-precursor by freeze drying method. The composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, uniaxial compressive test, three-point bending test, thermal conductivity analysis, contact angle test, TG-DSC analysis.

The bulk density and thermal conductivity first decreased and then increased with the increasing molar ratio. The composites showed remarkable mechanical strength and flexibility compared with pure silica aerogel. Moreover, when the molar ratio is 1.

Basic science of new aerogels. Final report. Addition of natural and synthetic clay minerals or zeolites to silica aerosols was shown to retard densification. Composite silica aerogels showed significant surface area still present after sintering at or C.

Composite aerogels , in general, had lower hardness values than pure silica. Hardness values were inversely proportional to aerogel pore radius. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings. The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazings will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material.

However, in a previous So hereby, a major obstacle is overcome with respect to a first industrial production of aerogel glazings. The apparatus has been constructed Hydrogen storage property of nanoporous carbon aerogels. Carbon aerogels were prepared from resorcinol and formaldehyde via sol-gel process, high temperature carbonization and atmospheric pressure drying technology with solvent replacement.

By changing the resorcinol-sodium carbonate molar ratio and the mass fraction of the reactants,resorcinol and formaldehyde, the pore structure of carbon aerogels can be controlled and the palladium-doped carbon aerogels were prepared. By transmission electron microscopy TEM , X-ray diffraction XRD spectra, it is confirmed that the Pd exists in the skeleton structure of carbon aerogels as a form of nano simple substance pellet.

In addition, the hydrogen adsorption test of palladium-doped carbon aerogels at room temperature K shows that the total hydrogen storage capacity of doped carbon aerogels is declined due to the relative small specific surface, but the hydrogen storage of unit specific surface area is enhanced. Electrochemical investigation of functionalized graphene aerogel with different amount of p-phenylenediamine as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitors.

Graphene aerogel has attracted great attention as a new and efficient electrode material for supercapacitors. It can be expected that functionalization of graphene aerogels can further improve their capability. In this study, graphene aerogel functionalized with different amount of p-phenylenediamine PPD and the effect of PPD amount on the supercapacitive performance of functionalized graphene aerogel FGA was investigated.

Structural characterizations showed that PPD molecules initiated graphene aerogel sheets assembly into three-dimensional structures and also increasing PPD amount led to increase in surface area. Electrochemical investigations proved that the FGA with larger pore size showed enhanced supercapacitive performance compared with the FGA with smaller pore size. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement.

A scan in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel -filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix. The monolithic carbon aerogels and aerogel composites for electronics and thermal protection applications. Monolithic carbon aerogels have been prepared by condensation polymerization and high temperature pyrolysis.

The morphology of carbon aerogels are characterized by SEM. The pore structure is characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption technique. Monolithic carbon aerogels are mesoporous nanomaterials. Carbon fiber reinforced carbon aerogel composites are prepared by in-situ sol-gel process. Fiber reinforced carbon aerogel composites are of high mechanical strength. The thermal response of the fiber reinforced aerogel composite samples are tested in an arc plasma wind tunnel.

Aerogels have many attractive properties but are usually costly and mechanically brittle, which always limit their practical applications. While many efforts have been made to reinforce the aerogels , most of the reinforcement efforts sacrifice the transparency or superinsulating properties. The method is based on consecutive processes involving radical polymerization and hydrolytic polycondensation, followed by ultralow-cost, highly scalable, ambient-pressure drying directly from alcohol as a drying medium without any modification or additional solvent exchange.

The resulting aerogels and xerogels show a homogeneous, tunable, highly porous, doubly cross-linked nanostructure with the elastic polymethylsiloxane network cross-linked with flexible hydrocarbon chains. An outstanding combination of ultralow cost, high scalability, uniform pore size, high surface area, high transparency, high hydrophobicity, excellent machinability, superflexibility in compression, superflexibility in bending, and superinsulating properties has been achieved in a single aerogel or xerogel.

This study represents a significant progress of porous materials and makes the practical applications of transparent flexible aerogel-based superinsulators realistic. A two-step sol-gel process composed of hydrolysis under acidic conditions and polycondensation under basic conditions in a liquid surfactant produces a homogeneous pore structure based on cross-linked nanosized colloidal particles. This highly resilient behavior is primarily derived from the rigidity of ethenylene groups, which is confirmed by a comparison with other aerogels with similar molecular structures, ethylene-bridged polymethylsiloxane and polymethylsilsesquioxane.

Applicability of the addition reaction using a Diels-Alder reaction of benzocyclobutene has also been investigated, revealing that a successful addition takes place on the ethenylene linkings, which is verified using Raman and solid-state NMR spectroscopies. Insights into the effect of molecular structure on mechanical properties and the availability of surface functionalization provided in this study are important for realizing transparent aerogels with the desired functionality.

Monolithic Silica aerogel in superinsulating glazings. This phenomenon is considered being the main obstacle to incorporate the material in clear glazings but a significant improvement of the optical quality of aerogel has been observed during the last five years. A number of prototypical evacuated xx28 mm aerogel double glazed units employing a new edge seal Electrospinning of polymer- aerogel composite fibres.

Kevebtusm Bucgikas; Rawashdeh, Abdel M. Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized in fluid and frozen solution and as dopants of silica aerogels. The intramolecular quenching efficiency of pendant 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium group 4BzPy is solvent dependent: emission is quenched completely in acetonitrile but not in alcohols.

On the other hand, N-benzyl-N'-methylviologen BzMeV quenches the emission in all solvents completely. The differences are traced electrochemically to a stronger solvation effect by the alcohol in the case of 1. In fiozen matrices or absorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel , both 1 and 2 are photoluminescent. The lack of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigidity. When doped aerogels are cooled to 77K, the emission shifts to the blue and its intensity increases in analogy to what is observed with Ru II complexes in media undergoing fluid-to-rigid transition.

The photoluminescence of 1 and 2 from the aerogel is quenched by oxygen diffusing through the pores. In the presence of oxygen, aerogels doped with 1 can modulate their emission over a wider dynamic range than aerogels doped with 2, and both are more sensitive than aerogels doped with Ru II tris 1,l0- phenanthroline. In contrast to frozen solutions, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at 77K are still accessible, leading to more sensitive platforms for oxygen sensors than other ambient temperature configurations.

Synthesis of silica aerogel from bagasse ash was done by alkaline extraction followed by sol-gel. Bagasse ash was extracted with NaOH at its boiling temperature for one hour with continue stirring, to produce sodium silicate. Subsequently, sodium silicate was pass through ionic exchanger resin, to produces silicic acid SA. The resulting gel then was aged and dried at ambient pressure and at a certain time and temperature. In the present study coir pith and lime are used as stabilizers. Unconfined compressive strength UCS of unstabilized and stabilized soils was determined.

Optimum content of coir pith and lime are determined based on UCS of the soil. California bearing ratio of soil determined at optimum contents of coir pith and lime. Flexible pavement layer compositions for two levels of traffic using stabilized soil subgrade. Coir fibre toxicity: in vivo and in vitro studies. The biological activity of coir fibre, coir ash and their components were investigated in vitro by measuring the haemolytic activity and macrophage cytotoxicity.

In vivo studies carried out by injecting guinea pigs intratracheally with coir fibres resulted in resolving granulomas. The observed haemolytic activity and macrophage cytotoxicity was more marked with coir ash compared with coir fibres. Chemical analysis of coir ash revealed the presence of toxic chemical constituents in appreciable amounts. Biosoftening of coir fiber using selected microorganisms.

Coir fiber belongs to the group of hard structural fibers obtained from coconut husk. As lignin is the main constituent of coir responsible for its stiffness, microbes that selectively remove lignin without loss of appreciable amounts of cellulose are extremely attractive in biosoftening.

Five isolated strains were compared with known strains of bacteria and fungi. FeSO4 and humic acid were found to be the best inducers for P. Biosoftening of unretted coir fibers was more advantageous than the retted fibers. Unlike the weak chemically softened fiber, microbial treatment produced soft, whiter fibers having better tensile strength and elongation Scanning electron microscopy photos showed the mycelia penetrating the pores of the fiber, removing the tylose plug and degrading lignin.

Enhancement of nitric oxide release and hemocompatibility by surface chirality of D-tartaric acid grafting. Nitric Oxide NO generation from endogenous NO-donors catalyzed by diselenide modified biomaterials has been reported. Here we reported surface chirality by L-tartaric acid and D-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost showed a significant impact on diselenide modified biomaterials, which modulated protein adsorption, NO release and anti-platelet adhesion properties.

D-tartaric acid grafted surface showed more blood protein adsorption than that of L-surfaces by QCM analysis, however, ELISA analysis disclosed less fibrinogen denatured on the D surfaces. Due to the surface ratio of selenium decreasing, NO release catalyzed by L-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost significantly decreased in comparison to that of only selenocystamine immobilized surfaces.

While NO release catalyzed by D-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost didn't decrease and was similar with that of selenocystamine immobilized surfaces. Surface chirality combined with NO release had synergetic effects on platelet adhesion, and it showed the lowest number of platelets adhered on the D-tartaric acid grafted surfaces. Thus surface chirality from D-tartaric acid grafting enhanced hemocompatibility of the surface in this study. Our work provides new insights into engineering novel blood contacting biomaterials by taking into account surface chirality.

A clinical and radiographic study of coir workers. Processing of coir , which is the fibre obtained from the husk of the coconut, is a dusty procedure; workers in two coir processing factories in Sri Lanka were examined clincally and radiographically for evidence of respiratory disease.

Respiratory disease such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, byssinosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis which may occur from occupational exposures were considered, but there was no evidence to suggest a definite association between these conditions and coir dust. Twenty-two workers had abnormal chest radiographs, but when compared with a control group of workers from an engineering firm where lesions were found in 20 cases, there was no significant difference.

In the opinion of the medical officer, management and workers of the large factory investigated, coir dust does not produce any respiratory disability. The chemical composition of coir dust is similar to that of sisal which is also relatively inert.

PubMed Central. Coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composite panel for automotive interior applications. In this study, physical, mechanical, and flammability properties of coconut fiber reinforced polypropylene PP composite panels were evaluated. The water resistance and the Thrombin immobilization to methacrylic acid grafted poly 3-hydroxybutyrate and its in vitro application. Poly 3-hydroxybutyrate is nontoxic and biodegradable, with good biocompatibility and potential support for long-term implants.

For this reason, it is a good support for enzyme immobilization. Enzyme immobilization could not be done directly because poly 3-hydroxybutyrate has no functional groups. Therefore, modification should be done for enzyme immobilization. In this study, methacrylic acid was graft polymerized to poly 3-hydroxybutyrate and thrombin was immobilized to polymethacrylic acid grafted poly 3-hydroxybutyrate. In fact, graft polymerization of methacrylic acid to poly 3-hydroxybutyrate and thrombin immobilization was a model study.

Biomolecule immobilized poly 3-hydroxybutyrate could be used as an implant. Thrombin was selected as a biomolecule for this model study and it was immobilized to methacrylic acid grafted poly 3-hydroxybutyrate. Then the developed product was used to stop bleeding. Soil reinforcement by natural fibers is one of the cheapest and attractive ground improvement techniques.

Coir is the most abundant natural fiber available in India and due to its high lignin content; it has a larger life span than other natural fibers. It is widely used in India for erosion control purposes, but its use as a reinforcement material is rather limited. This study focuses on the use of coir geotextile as a reinforcement material to reduce surface heave phenomena occurring in shallow foundations. This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests carried out on square footings supported on coir geotextile reinforced sand beds.

The influence of various parameters such as depth of reinforcement, length, and number of layers of reinforcement was studied. It was observed that surface heave is considerably reduced with the provision of geotextile. Heave reduction up to Heave reduction is quantified by a non-dimensional parameter called heave reduction factor.

Nasobronchial allergy and pulmonary function abnormalities among coir workers of Alappuzha. Coir is a commercially important natural fiber obtained from the coconut husk. Coir can be woven into strong twine or rope, and is used for padding mattresses, upholstery, etc. Coir industry provides a major share of occupation to the natives of Alappuzha district of Kerala State.

It has been noticed earlier that there is increased incidence of nasobronchial allergy among the population involved in this industry. This study was aimed at recognizing the symptomatology and pulmonary functional impairment among symptomatic coir workers. All coir workers who attended our institute over a period of three years were included in the study. Detailed occupational history was taken; symptom profile was studied in detail, clinical examination and pulmonary function tests conducted.

Among the symptomatic coir workers selected for this purpose, 64 patients had purely nasal symptoms, while had symptoms of nasobronchial allergy. We conclude that coir work induced nasobronchial allergy and pulmonary function abnormalities.

In absence of CT scan and bronchial challenge testing it may be inappropriate to label coir work as occupational hazard. However the present study may be used as thought provoking study to initiate further understanding. The influence of alkali and aldehyde treatment on thermal degradation and crystallinity of coir fiber was studied in detail.

Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were mainly used to characterize the coir samples. Activation energy of degradation was calculated from Broido and Horowitz-Metzger equations. NaOH-treated samples showed an increase in thermal stability. Removal of impurities such as waxy and fatty acid residues from the coir fiber by reacting with strong base solution improved the stability of fiber.

Crosslinking of cellulose with GA in the fiber enhanced the stability of the material. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to analyze the change in surface morphology upon chemical treatment. Improvement in the properties suggests that NaOH and GA can be effectively used to modify coir fiber with excellent stability. Sunlight is one of the factors that effect on the grow of a plant. Manihot esculenta is one of the plants that easily found in Indonesia because its role as staple food.

The aim of this research is to know the correlation between sunlight the grow of parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Independent variable in this research is sunlight, and dependent variable is the parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Data was collected is in qualitative and quantitative form.

Qualitative data gotten gained by morphology observation. The parenchyma pith cells of Manihot esculenta that is affected by sunlight in x 10 Lux, morphologically has hexagon, cell walls thick, solid state, and regular composition. Meanwhile, the parenchyma pith cells that has less sunlight x 10 Lux has a hexagon shape, thin cell walls thin, soft state, and irregular composition.

Qualitative data suported by quantitative data. Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate predominantly coir under protection.

Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation.

Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonization by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonizing strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonized roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir.

What happens in the pith stays in the pith : tissue-localized defense responses facilitate chemical niche differentiation between two spatially separated herbivores. Herbivore attack is known to elicit systemic defense responses that spread throughout the host plant and influence the performance of other herbivores. While these plant-mediated indirect competitive interactions are well described, and the co-existence of herbivores from different feeding guilds is common, the mechanisms of co-existence are poorly understood.

In both field and glasshouse experiments with a native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, we found no evidence of negative interactions when plants were simultaneously attacked by two spatially separated herbivores: a leaf chewer Manduca sexta and a stem borer Trichobaris mucorea. Pith chlorogenic acid CGA levels increased fold to levels 6-fold higher than leaf levels after T.

With plants silenced in CGA biosynthesis irHQT plants , CGA, as well as other caffeic acid conjugates, was demonstrated in both glasshouse and field experiments to function as a direct defense protecting piths against T. We conclude that tissue-localized defense responses allow tissue-specialized herbivores to share the same host and occupy different chemical defense niches in the same hostplant.

Mechanical properties and flexure behaviour of lightweight foamed concrete incorporating coir fibre. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the mechanical properties and flexural behaviour of lightweight foamed concrete LFC with added coir fibre as filler. The compressive strength Pt , tensile strength Ft , modulus of elasticity E , ultimate load and crack pattern of the foamed concrete were determined. The coir fibre was added to the foamed concrete mixture at 0.

It was found that the increase percentage of fibre resulted in increase in compressive strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of LFC mixture. LFC with added coir of 0. Optimization the mechanical properties of coir -luffa cylindrica filled hybrid composites by using Taguchi method. In the current study mechanical properties of particles filled hybrid composites have been studied. The mechanical properties of the hybrid composite mainly depend on the proportions of the coir weight, Luffa weight and filler weight.

RSM along with Taguchi method have been applied to find the optimized parameters of the hybrid composites. From the current study it was observed that the tensile strength of the composite mainly depends on the coir percent than the other two particles. Median and common peroneal neuropathy in coir workers of Alappuzha district, Kerala.

Coir work, in a large number of people involves mechanically rolling the coconut fibers into coir which is later subjected to various processes. The primary work is done as a cottage industry specially by women in the sitting posture for several hours. This study reports evidence of median and common peroneal neuropathy electrophysiologically in people who had been engaged in this job for several years. This study was initiated to establish the possible relationship between coir work and symptomatic neuropathies which was seen in that region with all investigations " for other causes not " contributing to the etiological diagnosis.

One hundred and forty-two upper limbs and lower limbs in patients engaged in long years of coir work but having no symptoms were evaluated electrophysiologically with informed consent and financial compensation, appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed as described in the text. There is electrophysiological evidence for median and common peroneal neuropathy in persons engaged in long years of coir work.

Coir workers neuropathy appears to be a new occupational neuropathy which can be prevented by following simple preventive measures. Introduction: Coir work, in a large number of people involves mechanically rolling the coconut fibers into coir which is later subjected to various processes.

Subjects and Methods: One hundred and forty-two upper limbs and lower limbs in patients engaged in long years of coir work but having no symptoms were evaluated electrophysiologically with informed consent and financial compensation, appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed as described in the text. Results: There is electrophysiological evidence for median and common peroneal neuropathy in persons engaged in long years of coir work.

Conclusions: Coir workers neuropathy appears to be a new occupational neuropathy which can be prevented by following simple preventive measures. Ash content of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate, and distance from pith. In earlywood of Pinus taeda L. Latewood ash content was unrelated to the gross wood factors of distance, from the pith , specific gravity, and growth rate. The ash The application of natural lignocellulosic fibers LCFs in engineering composites has increased interest in their properties and structural characteristics.

In particular, the inherent porosity of an LCF markedly affects its density and the adhesion to polymer matrices. For the first time, both open and closed porosities of a natural LCF, for different diameter ranges, were assessed. Fibers extracted from the mesocarp of the coconut fruit were investigated by nondestructive methods of density measurements and x-ray microtomography microCT.

It was found that, for all diameter ranges, the closed porosity is significantly higher than the open porosity. The amount and characteristics of these open and closed porosities were revealed by t test and Weibull statistics as well as by microCT. Polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium Psy- g-PMA : a novel material for waste water treatment.

Polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium Psy- g-PMA was synthesized by microwave assisted method, which involves a microwave irradiation in synergism with silver sulfate as a free radical initiator to initiate grafting reaction. Psy- g-PMA grades have been synthesized and characterized on structural basis elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, intrinsic viscosity study as well as morphological and thermal studies, taking psyllium as reference.

The effects of reaction time, amount of monomer and silver sulfate free radical initiator on grafting of PMA on psyllium backbone have been studied. It is observed that all the grades of Psy- g-PMA have higher intrinsic viscosities than that of psyllium. The best synthesized grade was Psy- g-PMA having intrinsic viscosity of 6.

Further Psy- g-PMA applications as flocculants for waste water treatment have been investigated. Psy- g-PMA resulted in higher decrease in the flocculation parameters such as total dissolved solid or total solids compared to psyllium. Hence the result shows the possible application of grafted psyllium in wastewater treatment. Synthesis, characterization, bioactivity and potential application of phenolic acid grafted chitosan: A review.

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the grafting of phenolic acid onto chitosan in order to enhance the bioactivity and widen the application of chitosan. Here, we present a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of phenolic acid grafted chitosan phenolic acid-g-chitosan in many aspects, including the synthetic method, structural characterization, biological activity, physicochemical property and potential application.

In general, four kinds of techniques including carbodiimide based coupling, enzyme catalyzed grafting, free radical mediated grafting and electrochemical methods are frequently used for the synthesis of phenolic acid-g-chitosan. The structural characterization of phenolic acid-g-chitosan can be determined by several instrumental methods. The physicochemical properties of chitosan are greatly altered after grafting. As compared with chitosan, phenolic acid-g-chitosan exhibits enhanced antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities.

Notably, phenolic acid-g-chitosan shows potential applications in many fields as coating agent, packing material, encapsulation agent and bioadsorbent. Effect of aniline on cadmium adsorption by sulfanilic acid-grafted magnetic graphene oxide sheets. Cd II has posed severe health risks worldwide. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, ionic strength, contact time and temperature on the Cd II enrichment, as well as the adsorption kinetics and isotherm were also investigated.

The Cd II adsorption was reduced by the presence of aniline at pH 5. The presence of Cd II diminished the adsorption capacity for aniline at pH 7. Besides, the adsorption process could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion study revealed that the intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-limiting step for the adsorption process. Moreover, the experimental data of isotherm followed the Freundlich isotherm model. Protocatechuic acid-grafted -chitosan PA-g-CS solution with antioxidant activity was developed as a novel edible coating material for Pleurotus eryngii postharvest storage.

Results showed that the antioxidant capacity and viscosity of PA-g-CS solutions were closely related to the grafting degree and were much higher than that of chitosan CS solution. At the end of 15 days of storage, serious mushroom browning was observed in the control and CS coating groups.

By contrast, PA-g-CS coating groups with medium and high grafting degrees maintained better physical appearance. Among all of the treatment groups, P. Moreover, P. Graphene nanosheets and polyacrylic acid grafted silicon composite anode for lithium ion batteries. The Si nanopowder was modified by a binder-like organic moeity 1- bromoethyl benzene and polyacrylic acid grafted on the surface of hydrogenated silicon by diazonium chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

The graphene was produced by electrochemical exfoliation of natural graphite. The effect of different levels of sunflower head pith addition on the properties of model system emulsions prepared from fresh and frozen beef. The effect of sunflower head pith on the functional properties of emulsions was studied by using a model system. Emulsion capacity EC , stability ES , viscosity EV , colour and flow properties of the prepared model system emulsions were analyzed.

Fresh beef emulsions had higher EC and ES values than did frozen beef emulsions. One percent pith concentration was the critic level for the EV values of fresh beef emulsions. Self-compacting concrete SCC is the alternative way to reduce construction time and improve the quality and strength of concrete. The precast self-compacting concrete PSCC panel with added coir fiber will be overview in this paper.

The properties of SCC and coir fiber are studied and reviewed from the previous researches. Finite element analysis is used to support the experimental results by conduction parametric simulation study on PSCC under flexure load. In general, it was found that coir fiber has a significant influence on the flexural load and crack propagation. Kinetic study of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated coconut coir. Biomass waste utilization for biofuel production such as bioethanol, has become more prominent currently.

Coconut coir is one of lignocellulosic food wastes, which is abundant in Indonesia. Bioethanol production from such materials consists of more than one step. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis is crucial steps to produce sugar which can then be fermented into bioethanol. This pretreatment had increased the cellulose content and decreased the lignin content of coconut coir.

The pretreated coconut coir was hydrolyzed using a mix of two commercial cellulase enzymes at pH of 4. The enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted at several initial coconut coir slurry concentrations 0. The reducing sugar concentration profiles had been produced and can be used to obtain reaction rates. The highest reducing sugar concentration obtained was 1, In this paper, the reducing sugar concentrations were empirically modeled as a function of reaction time using power equations.

Michaelis-Menten kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis reaction is adopted. The kinetic parameters of that model for sulfuric acid-pretreated coconut coir enzymatic hydrolysis had been obtained which are Vm of 3. Hanging angles of two electrostatically repelling pith balls of different masses. An analytic solution can be derived for the angles of two mutually repelling charged pith balls of unequal mass hanging from strings from a common point of attachment.

Just as in the equal-mass case, a cubic equation is found for the square of the sine of either angle, and an approximation can be used to avoid Cardano's formula for small angles. These results extend a standard problem treated in introductory undergraduate courses in electricity and magnetism.

Paired dating of pith and outer edge terminus samples from prehispanic Caribbean wooden sculptures. Terminus dates can be provided by dating the sapwood, or the outermost edge of heartwood, while a date from the pith can give an indication of Structural characterization of lignin isolated from coconut Cocos nucifera coir fibers.

Finally, we find evidence that the flavone tricin is incorporated into the coconut coir lignin, as has been recently noted for various grasses. This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of sandwich composite panels using glass fiber composite skin and polyurethane foam reinforced coconut coir fiber core.

The main objectives are to characterize the physical and mechanical properties and to elucidate the effect of coconut coir fibers in polyurethane foam cores and sandwich composite panels. It was found that composites properties serve better in sandwich composites construction.

This paper presents the effect of coir fibres on the compaction and unconfined compressive strength of a bentonite-lime-gypsum mixture. The coir fiber content varied from 0. The results indicated that the dry unit weight and the optimum moisture content of a bentonite - lime mix increased with the addition of gypsum.

The dry unit weight of the reference mix decreased, and the optimum moisture content increased with the addition of coir fibre. The unconfined compressive strength of the reference mix increased with the addition of coir fibre up to a fibre content of 1. The unconfined compressive strength of the reference mix- coir fibre composite was less in comparison to the reference mix. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite increased with the addition of lime and gypsum and with the increase in the curing period.

The improvement in the post-peak region was better for the reference mix with reinforced coir fibres as compared to the unreinforced reference mix. The improved post-peak behaviour of the bentonite-lime-gypsum- coir fibre mixture could boost the construction of temporary roads on such problematic soils. Further, its use will also provide an environmental motivation for providing a means of consuming large quantities of coir fibres. Effect of fiber fibrillation on impact and flexural strength of coir fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites.

This study aims to develop fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites. This study presents the effect of fiber fibrillation on the impact and flextural strength of the epoxy hybrid composite reinforced by coir fiber. Then fiber is rocessed using a blender of rpm density fibrillation. The length of time the fibrillation varied for 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The composite uses a matrix of epoxy by hand lay up method.

The implemented tests are impact and flexural tests. The test results show fiber fibrillation treatment can improve the composite mechanical properties. The highest impact and flexural strength, Environmental friendly method for the extraction of coir fibre and isolation of nanofibre. The objective of this work was to develop an environmental friendly method for the effective utilization of coir fibre by adopting steam pre-treatment.

The retting of the coconut bunch makes strong environmental problems which can be avoided by this method. Morphological and dynamic light scattering analyses of the fibres at different processing stages revealed that the isolation of cellulose nano fibres occur in the final step of the process as an aqueous suspension. FT-IR and XRD analysis demonstrated that the treatments lead to the gradual removal of lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibres.

The existence of strong lignin-cellulose complex in the raw coir fibre is proved by its enhanced thermal stability. Steam explosion has been proved to be a green method to expand the application areas of coir fibre. Investigations of plasma induced effects on the surface properties of lignocellulosic natural coir fibres.

Praveen, K. The development of lignocellulosic natural-fibre-reinforced polymers composites are constrained by two limitations: the upper temperature at which the fibre can be processed and the significant differences between the surface energy of the fibre and the polymer matrix. Since the fibres and matrices are chemically different, strong adhesion at their interface is needed for the effective transfer of stress and bond distribution throughout the interface.

The present study investigated the plasma induced effects on the surface properties of natural coir fibres. Weakly ionized oxygen plasma was created in two different discharge chambers by an inductively coupled radiofrequency RF discharge. The morphological study using scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis also confirmed the surface changes which were observed after the plasma treatment. The topographic measurements and phase imaging done using atomic force microscopy AFM indicated difference in topographic features and etching of coir wall, which points to the removal of the first layer of coir fibre.

Physical properties of coir and pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polylactic acid hybrid composites. The results indicated that the density varies on different fibre ratio. Two-steps microwave-assisted treatment on acid hydrolysis of sago pith for bioethanol production. Sago is a genus of palm that can be utilized to produce fermentable sugars as substrate for bioethanol. Sago pith is a heterogeneous substrate consists of starch and fiber.

Acid hydrolysis by microwave heating radiation can break down starch and fibers together in a very short time, so it is considered to be very efficient process. The use of microwave energy as power level and variation of heating time can produce fermentable sugar with certain characteristics. This study included the preparation and analysis of sago pith flour; process of acid hydrolysis 0. The highest fermentable sugar This hydrolyzate then used as substrate for bioethanol fermentation and partially neutralized pH 3, 4, 5 by using yeast Issatchenkia orientalis, and the highest ethanol 2.

Biomass materials from different organisms or different parts even different periods of the same organism have different microscopic morphologies, hierarchical pore structures and even elemental compositions. Therefore, carbon materials inheriting the unique hierarchical microstructure of different biomass materials may exhibit significantly different electrochemical properties.

Cornstalk pith and cornstalk skin dried by freeze-drying exhibit significantly different microstructures due to their different biological functions. The cornstalk skin-based carbon S-carbon exhibits a thick planar morphology, and the Barrett-Emmett-Teller BET surface area is only about However, cornstalk pith -based carbon P-carbon exhibits a graphene-like 2D porous nanosheet structure with a rough, wrinkled morphology, and the BET surface area is about In addition, a P-carbon supercapacitor exhibits much higher specific capacitance and much better rate capability than an S-carbon supercapacitor in 6 M potassium hydroxide KOH electrolyte.

Morphological characteristics of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate and distance from pith. Earlywood and latewood tracheid length and transverse cellular dimensions of wood removed from stems of loblolly pine Pinus taeda L. The independent relationships of each factor with fiber morphology are described. Effects of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on postpartum lactation start time.

Delay in lactation initiation causes maternal anxiety and subsequent adverse impact on maternal exclusive breast feeding. It is important to explore a safe and convenient way to promote lactation initiation. The feasibility of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on prevention of delayed lactation initiation was investigated in the present study. We conclude that point massage of the liver and stomach channel is easy to operate and has the preventive effect on delayed lactation initiation.

Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Initiation of lactation is a critical period in postpartum milk secretion. Delays in lactation initiation lead to maternal anxiety and have an adverse impact on maternal exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking frequently by babies and mammary massage might be effective but insufficient for delayed lactation initiation. What the results of this study add: We found in the present study that lactation initiation is significantly earlier in women receiving routine nursing combined with point massage of liver and stomach channel, or pith trotters soup, or massage of liver and stomach channel with pith and trotters soup than in a control group receiving routine nursing.

These three methods are all effective, while the most. The obtained resins were subsequently converted into films via blown film extrusion. Poly methacylic acid-co-maleic acid grafted nanofibrillated cellulose as a reusable novel heavy metal ions adsorbent. A poly methacrylic acid-co-maleic acid grafted nanofibrillated cellulose NFC-MAA-MA aerogel was prepared via radical polymerization in an aqueous solution using Fenton's reagent.

The ensuing aerogel, in the form of a rigid porous material, was characterized by FTIR and NMR and used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Patupilone-loaded poly L-glutamic acid -graft -methoxy-poly ethylene glycol micelle for oncotherapy. Patupilone, an original natural anti-cancer agent, also known as epothilone B or Epo, has shown promise for the treatment of a variety of cancers, however, the systematic side effects of patupilone significantly impaired its clinical translation.

For in vivo treatment of orthotopic xenograft tumor models MCF-7 , the EpoM exhibited higher tumor inhibition efficiency with lower side effects as compared with free Epo Seventeen percent of the body weight loss appeared in the group treated with free Epo of 0. Therefore, the polypeptide-patupilone conjugate has improved potential for oncotherapy. Draft genome of a Xanthomonas perforans strain associated with pith necrosis.

Xanthomonas perforans causes bacterial spot of tomato and pepper. A genome draft of an unusual isolate strain 4P1S2 , differing in that it was associated with stem pith necrosis, was assembled from Illumina MiSeq sequencing data using the draft of X. The resulting draft accession number JRWW largely overlapped with the reference draft.

In addition, the reads not mapping on the reference assembly were selected and used for a further assembly, that revealed a large putative plasmid. The analysis of the predicted proteins showed only few gene features that could be potentially implicated in the switch of a phytopathological behavior. For permissions, please e-mail: journals. Sound or noise pollution has become one major issues to the community especially those who lived in the urban areas.

It does affect the activity of human life. This excessive noise is mainly caused by machines, traffic, motor vehicles and also any unwanted sounds that coming from outside and even from the inside of the building. Such as a loud music. Therefore, the installation of sound absorption panel is one way to reduce the noise pollution inside a building. The selected material must be a porous and hollow in order to absorb high frequency sound.

This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of egg tray and coir fibre as a sound absorption panel. The coir fibre has a good coefficient value which make it suitable as a sound absorption material and can replace the traditional material; syntactic and wooden material.

The combination of pyramid shape of egg tray can provide a large surface for uniform sound reflection. This study was conducted by using a panel with size 1 m x 1 m with a thickness of 6 mm. This panel consist of egg tray layer, coir fibre layer and a fabric as a wrapping for the aesthetic value.

Room reverberation test has been carried to find the loss of reverberation time RT. Result shows that, a reverberation time reading is on low frequency, which is Hz to Hz. Within these frequencies, this panel can shorten the reverberation time of 5. Hence, from this study, it can be concluded that the selected materials have the potential as a good sound absorption panel.

The comparison is made with the previous research that used egg tray and kapok as a sound absorption panel. Multi-armed poly L-glutamic acid -graft -oligoethylenimine copolymers as efficient nonviral gene delivery vectors. The application of polyethylenimine PEI in gene delivery has been severely limited by significant cytotoxicity that results from a nondegradable methylene backbone and high cationic charge density. It is therefore necessary to develop novel biodegradable PEI derivates for low-toxic, highly efficient gene delivery.

A series of novel cationic copolymers with various charge density were designed and synthesized by grafting different kinds of oligoethylenimine OEI onto a determinate multi-armed poly L-glutamic acid backbone. The molecular structures of multi-armed poly L-glutamic acid -graft -OEI MP-g-OEI copolymers were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance, viscosimetry and gel permeation chromatography. MP-g-OEI copolymers were also evaluated in Chinese hamster ovary and human embryonic kidney cells for their cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency.

All the MP-g-OEI copolymers exhibited lower cytotoxicity and higher gene transfection efficiency than PEI25k in the absence and presence of serum with different cell lines. MP-g-OEI copolymers demonstrated considerable potential as nonviral vectors for gene therapy. WRKY proteins are one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants and play diverse roles in various biological processes.

Previous studies have shown that some WRKY members act as negative regulators of secondary cell wall formation in pith parenchyma cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of pith secondary wall formation in tree species remains largely unknown. PtrWRKY19 was expressed in all tissues tested, with highest expression in stems, especially in pith. PtrWRKY19 was located in the nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of PtrWRKY19 in poplar plants led to a significant increase in the number of pith parenchyma cells.

These results indicated that PtrWRKY19 may function as a negative regulator of pith secondary wall formation in poplar. Cocos nucifera coir -mediated green synthesis of Pd NPs and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest. In recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. Cocos nucifera C. Cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help C.

Green-synthesized spherical-shape Pd NPs were over layered by secondary metabolites from C. Eco-friendly mediated Pd NPs were further subjected to several biological applications like larvicidal against Aedes aegypti A. Cocos nucifera coir methanolic extract shows significant output while compared with Pd NPs towards anti-feedent assays; ovicidal activity and oviposition deterrent were discussed here.

Coconut coir as biosorbent for Cr VI removal from laboratory wastewater. A high cost-effective treatment of sulphochromic waste is proposed employing a raw coconut coir as biosorbent for Cr VI removal. The ideal pH and sorption kinetic, sorption capacities, and sorption sites were the studied biosorbent parameters. After testing five different isotherm models with standard solutions, Redlich-Peterson and Toth best fitted the experimental data, obtaining a theoretical Cr VI sorption capacity SC of 6.

Differences between sorption sites in the coconut coir before and after Cr adsorption identified from Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested a modification of sorption sites after sulphochromic waste treatment, indicating that the sorption mechanism involves organic matter oxidation and chromium uptake.

For sulphocromic waste treatment, the SC was improved to Mechanical properties evaluation of single and hybrid composites polyester reinforced bamboo, PALF and coir fiber. Rihayat, T. This study aims to determine the composition fiber natural of bamboo, pineapple leaf and coir in single and hybrid composite to see the best characteristics of tensile strength and flexural test by using a Universal Testing Machine UTM and observe the effect on the microstructure of the composite through optical and scanning electron microscopy.

From the variation of the volume fraction between filler and matrix show that mechanical properties of composites increased with increasing amount of filler in the matrix. This research has produced a hybrid composite materials that have high mechanical properties and bending compared with conventional synthetic fibers and other materials.

Subcritical carbon dioxide-water hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pith for reducing sugars production. The aim of present study was to obtain total reducing sugars TRS by hydrolysis in subcritical CO 2 -water from sugarcane bagasse pith SCBP , the fibrous residue remaining after papermaking from sugarcane bagasse. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by L 16 4 5 orthogonal experiments.

The TRS yield achieved Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance were used to characterize hydrolysis liquor, treated and untreated SCBP, resulting in the removal of hemicelluloses to mainly produce xylose, glucose and arabinose during hydrolysis. The severity factors had no correlation to TRS yield, indicating that the simple kinetic processes of biomass solubilisation cannot perfectly describe the SCBP hydrolysis.

The first-order kinetic model based on consecutive reaction was used to obtain rate constants, activation energies and pre-exponential factors. Effects of progesterone on cardiovascular responses to amines and to sympathetic stimulation in the pithed rat. Pretreatment with progesterone increased the durations but not the magnitudes of the blood pressure and heart rate responses to adrenaline and that phase of the response to sympathetic stimulation attributable to amine release from the adrenal medulla.

Responses to noradrenaline, tyramine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and that phase of the response to sympathetic stimulation associated with amine release from the sympathetic nerves were not significantly different in the two groups. The increases in duration were consistently less in animals pretreated with progesterone than in controls. It is concluded that the effects of progesterone may result from a localized decrease in catechol O-methyl transferase activity within the cardiovascular system.

Hypothermia augments non-cholinergic neuronal bronchoconstriction in pithed guinea-pigs. Electrical stimulation at C4-C7 in the spinal canal of pithed guinea-pigs injected with atropine, d-tubocurarine and pentolinium caused frequency-dependent bronchoconstriction.

Such non-cholinergic responses to electrical stimulation, unlike responses to substance P, were abolished by pretreatment with capsaicin but not by mepyramine or propranolol. Bronchoconstrictor responses to electrical stimulation were inversely related to rectal temperature between degrees C whereas responses to substance P increased with increasing temperature over the same range.

Ouabain i. Both morphine and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist B-HT i. These results stress the importance of adequate control of body temperature in this preparation. Lowered body temperature may increase neuronal output of neuropeptides whilst depressing bronchial smooth muscle sensitivity. Study of pyrolysed acid and based treated coconut coir as green photocatalyst substrate. This study investigates the possible contribution to sustainable development by utilizing agriculture waste materials to prepare a substrate for photo-catalysis application.

The photocatalytic performance of impregnated TiO2 on acid and base- treated coconut coir CC and their pyrolysed form have been studied. However, the pyrolysed samples showed higher thermal stability and porosity compared to only treated CC, their catalytic performance was decreased.

It seems that impregnated TiO2 undergo interaction with treated CC during pyrolysis. More investigations to reveal exact reason of this behavior is in progress. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. Our measurements reveal DWs with fixed rotational sense for one monolayer of Co on Ir, with a wall width around 2.

The calculated DW widths are in good agreement with the experimental observations. Therefore a simple additive effect, in which both interfaces contribute significantly to the total DMI, is not observed for one atomic Co layer sandwiched between Ir and Pt. Sharma, Kashma; Kaith, B. A systematic comparative study was carried out for the induced changes in the chemical, structural, morphological and thermal properties of poly methacrylic acid grafted gum ghatti i.

The degradation of the material was observed after ion irradiation. A significant loss of crystallinity and change in the crystallite size was observed in irradiated samples of Gg-cl-poly MAA. The changes in chemical properties and surface morphology were observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy respectively.

Characterization of prejunctional 5-HT receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic vasopressor responses in the pithed rat. It has recently been shown that continuous infusions of 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT are able to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the pressor responses induced by preganglionic T7-T9 sympathetic stimulation in pithed rats pretreated with desipramine 50 micrograms kg-1, i.

This inhibitory effect, besides being significantly more pronounced at lower frequencies of stimulation 0. In the present study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the receptors mediating the above inhibitory effect of 5-HT. The inhibition induced by 5. Unexpectedly and contrasting with methysergide, the 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, methiothepin 0.

Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these antagonists also blocked the electrically-induced pressor responses per se, presumably by blockade of vascular alpha 1-adrenoceptors and, indeed, this property might have masked their potential antagonism at the inhibitory 5-HT1-like receptors. The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide CGRP in the modulation of vascular tone has been widely documented.

Indeed, electrical stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats induces vasodepressor responses by activation of CGRP receptors. This study investigated the role of 5-HT7 receptors in the inhibition of the rat vasodepressor sensory outflow. Male Wistar pithed rats were pretreated with i. Then, electrical stimulation of the spinal cord resulted in frequency-dependent decreases in DBP. The infusions of AS, as compared to those of saline, inhibited the vasodepressor responses induced by electrical stimulation without affecting those to i.

Biodegradation of toluene vapor in coir based upflow packed bed reactor by Trichoderma asperellum isolate. In the present study, a new biofiltration system involving a selective microbial strain isolated from aerated municipal sewage water attached with coir as packing material was developed for toluene degradation. Effect of various factors on growth and toluene degradation by newly isolated T.

Effect of various parameters like column height, flow rate, and the inlet toluene concentration were studied to evaluate the performance of the biofilter. The maximum elimination capacity g m -3 h -1 was obtained with the packing height of cm with the empty bed residence time of 5 min. Under these optimum conditions, the T. Kinetic models have been developed for toluene degradation by T. Performance evaluation and modelling studies of gravel-- coir fibre--sand multimedia stormwater filter.

A horizontal flow multimedia stormwater filter was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. Gravel, coconut Cocos nucifera fibre and sand were selected as the media and filled in proportion. A fabric screen made up of woven sisal hemp was used to separate the media. The adsorption behaviour of coir fibre was determined in a series of column and batch studies and the corresponding isotherms were developed.

The hydraulic efficiency of the filter showed a diminishing trend as the sediment level in inflow increased. Similar results were obtained from a field evaluation study. Studies were also conducted to determine the pattern of silt and sediment deposition inside the filter body. The effects of residence time and rate of flow on removal percentages of NO3 - and TS were also investigated out. In addition, a multiple regression equation that mathematically represents the filtration process was developed.

Based on estimated annual costs and returns, all financial viability criteria internal rate of return, net present value and benefit-cost ratio were found favourable and affordable to farmers for investment in the developed filtration system. The model MUSIC was calibrated and validated for field conditions with respect to the developed stormwater filter. Study of physical and sound absorbing property of epoxy blended coir dust biocomposite.

Reinforcement biocomposite has gained more attention recently due to its low cost, abundantly availability, low density, specific properties, easy method of separation, enhanced energy recovery, CO2 neutrality, biodegradability and recyclable in nature.


I still think its conspiracy.. They can setup thinks like that, they can edit things like that in five fucking year.. And the flight wich "crashed" to the field, landed couple of hours later.. Still your government says it crashed.. Why were they trying Moussaoui, anyway? Because he did nothing to stop the attacks? Shit, i'd be willing to bet a quarter of the big hats in Washington had advance knowledge of the attacks.

The man is scum. He was supposed to strike the white house. But yeah those videos show nothing new. It's crappy footage. The plane that crashed into a field I dunno what website you get your info from but it sounds like an anti american hate site. Political Discussion Search In. Prev 1 2 Next Page 1 of 2. Recommended Posts. Report post. Posted May 16, Watch fireballs engulf ruined parts of the Pentagon -- "We fought hard to obtain this video because we felt that it was very important to complete the public record with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11," said Judicial Watch President Tom Fitton.

Share this post Link to post Share on other sites. I still can't see shit. And this is all the proof they have? Why the fuck do I still have faith in this government? Convicted Ponzi schemer Bernard Madoff is a spry seventy-one years young.

He has just been sentenced to years in a federal prison. Will he make it out in time to celebrate his bicentennial? It should be noted, however, that these life expectancy statistics are for an average man and, as Judge Denny Chin noted in his sentencing remarks, Madoff is an extraordinary person. According to these numbers, it seems that as an American man aged seventy-one years, Madoff has a Most importantly, though, he has a 1.

Scoff if you will, but I think a 1. Assuming for purposes of our discussion that Judge Chin does not share my optimistic nature and expects that Madoff will not survive his sentence, what might have prompted his decision? Even viewed as an unprecedented, staggering, and extraordinarily evil crime, however, was the sentence a proper one? Owing to a Supreme Court ruling, the sentencing guidelines are advisory for, but not binding upon, federal judges.

If his sentence were supported by the facts of the case and not otherwise prohibited by other applicable laws, Judge Chin had some latitude in crafting a sentence outside these guidelines. Probation and Pretrial Services System, erred when it said that the maximum prison sentence under the federal sentencing guidelines was life imprisonment.

He said no count to which Mr. Madoff pleaded guilty carried a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. Thus, the maximum guidelines sentence could be determined by adding up the maximum penalties for all counts, or years. That paragraph describes four objectives; very broadly, these are to punish criminal conduct, to deter others from committing similar crimes, to prevent recidivism, and to rehabilitate:. A to reflect the seriousness of the offense, to promote respect for the law, and to provide just punishment for the offense; B to afford adequate deterrence to criminal conduct; C to protect the public from further crimes of the defendant; and D to provide the defendant with needed educational or vocational training, medical care, or other correctional treatment in the most effective manner;.

I think that the sentence is justifiable if it affords a superior deterrent for future Madoffs than would a single life sentence. That focus on deterrence has been noted by many observers. Professor Douglas Berman wrote that:. Before Madoff, defendants like Ebbers and Jeff Skilling and others prominent white-collar defendants who were sentenced to around 25 years often served as the functional benchmark for sentencing debates for corporate fraudsters. In more than a few prominent white-collar cases, both the feds and defense attorneys would often compare and contrast the defendant to be sentenced to Ebbers and Skilling and the sentences they were given.

Now, the most prominent benchmark will be Madoff and the number What benefit did this guy get for pleading guilty? Trade-offs and unintended consequences abound in the law generally and in criminal law particularly. I suspect that both prosecutors and defense counsel soon will adjust to the new reality established in the Madoff case.

Plea bargaining will continue as before, but with prosecutors wielding a somewhat bigger stick in negotiations. I think that this sentence has thrown things into chaos temporarily and it will certainly set a higher sentencing benchmark for white collar defendants both of which should probably worry Sir Allen Stanford right about now , but the system will adjust.

Who are Weiss, Pound, and Schmidt you ask? In the Madoff case, listening to such appeals was probably justified, one experts [sic] says. A public reassessment of the relative harms caused by financial crimes is underway. When it comes to crimes against individuals, the armed robbery will always be treated more harshly than the con or fraud.

However severe violent crime can be for individual victims, though, violence is inherently personal or local and the effects of such crimes is terrible in degree but limited in scope. Financial crimes like those perpetrated by Madoff and other white collar criminals is certainly less severe than violent crime, but because these are widespread, even global, thousands of small injuries creates a tremendous cumulative harm and the most notable crimes can create incredible economic disruptions.

In a society in which financial security is paramount whether that should be so is beside the immediate point , robbing other people of their financial security is extraordinarily evil. And it is a worthy symbol. So, if I punch an old man in the face, I am evil. Not because their friends leave the victims but because the victims leave their friends, often in shame.

Someone who knowingly exposes his victims to this kind of damage is every bit as bad as a mugger. If the only meaningful change which comes from this increased awareness and appreciation of the effects of financial crime is that outraged victims will harangue judges into meting-out longer and longer sentences for every garden-variety fraud, I for one will be disappointed.

Merciful, maybe, but not lenient. Former Securities and Exchange Commission enforcement counsel Bruce Carton suggested an approach which I think is worth exploring:. Change the math to make it a year-old-man if you prefer, but you get the idea. Madoff pleaded guilty, saving the state a great deal of cost and effort and, just as important, obviated the need for victims to give evidence and, thereby, adding to their loss and burden.

No account appears to have been given for the plea — perhaps a minor technical point in this case? This is hardly surprising in this case. Clearly, the state, through the judiciary, is sending out a firm message that corporate fraudsters will get little mercy. Although many of his victims were rich, attracting little sympathy from some sections of the public, others have suffered very real hardship and their savings have been stripped from them.

Why was the regulatory regime so lax as to allow such a massive fraud to go undetected? It seems to my untutored eye that a sentence of 30 or years to an experienced businessman or woman is much the same — prison is a calculated risk for serious fraudsters. Will what is in effect no more of a whole life sentence than 30 years in your system for a year old fraudster be any more of a deterrent?

I understand that your prisons do not have a formal parole system — but there is time off for good behaviour. I also understand that your prisons are rather more severe places for residents than ours are reputed to be. It is unlikely that Madoff will ever be free of the fear of retribution from within the prison population and, therefore, it may be that he will need to be in a maximum security facility?

Detection, to my eye, is going to be more important in the long term than deterrence. It was ever thus, they say, with armed robbery in the old days in Britain — and Ponzi and other serious frauds are but the modern equivalent of robbery.

Retribution is a major factor also in this case — rather similar to revenge in our own Ronnie Biggs Great Train Robbery case. Biggs is 85, seriously ill, and is unlikely to pose a threat to the population if set free. It is likely he will die in prison. Biggs, however, has some support from members of the public in the Uk for release and some, myself included, feel that Straw has made the wrong decision on parole here.

As Madoff was given the maximum possible sentence under the sentencing guidelines, it can be stated as a fact that he received no credit for his decision to plead guilty. As you point out, at the very least he saved the not insignificant cost of his trial. Moreover, although the evidence against him was, by most accounts, pretty damning, the burden of proof remained on the prosecution and Madoff relieved them of that burden with his plea.

In my earlier comments, I had touched on one point of disagreement between Judge Chin and the pre-sentence report prepared by the U. Probation and Pretrial Services System. Chin had indicated that no count for which Madoff had entered a guilty plea carried a life sentence and that the cumulative total of guidelines sentences was years the sentence he imposed. The judge briefly remarked on that during some prepared remarks before a U.

Sentencing Commission conference this morning:. In the days since, the sentence has been dissected and debated, both in the popular press and the academic media. The discussion has been healthy: What are the goals of punishment? Did the sentence further those goals? Should helping victims heal be a goal of punishment? Is such a sentence merely pandering to the public? We are here today, of course, not to take on these questions, but to discuss the Sentencing Guidelines.

But the Madoff case underscores how difficult sentencing can be. With his guilt established by his own plea, his sentence within guidelines, and even a relatively short sentence unlikely to see him released from prison during his lifetime, a Madoff appeal might have resolved some of our arguments concerning the propriety of his sentence, but probably would have done him no real good.

While a maximum sentence will deter less committed fraudsters, there will undoubtedly be others who are not deterred. In this case, Judge Chin gave the prosecution the sentence it asked for; if they had asked for a lesser sentence, might Madoff have received it? If so, he gambled and lost. I suspect that other defendants will not make the same choice, but will instead try to guarantee some reward for any guilty plea, though prosecutors may be emboldened by this sentence not to give up too much in such negotiations.

I for one hope that one effect of the Madoff sentence will be to require more substantial cooperation and recovery for victims before any meaningful sentence reduction is offered. Clearly, the stage is set. Welcome to absurdity. There is no doubt that Marc Dreier is going to get slammed by Judge Rakoff at sentence, and Shargel as much as concedes this point up front. Then again, it would be offensive and foolish for him to do otherwise.

But how much of a slamming does a financial crime, even a huge one, deserve for the legitimate purpose of sentence? Nothing makes sense. The incentive structures mean nothing anymore. The distinction between violent and white collar crime is gone. The notion that there is some benefit to not doing ever greater harm has been lost. It seems safe to suggest that Sir Allen and his attorneys will be very interested to learn Mr.

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