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She says the proportions reveal something about the populations of stars at the very centers of galaxies, at distances from Earth that would otherwise be impossible to probe. The x-rays often flare irregularly, appear late, or are absent altogether. The x-rays could be steady but obscured by a cloud of gas, hundreds of times bigger than the black hole, that forms from a backlog of.

Theory does suggest black holes can become too massive to trigger TDEs. Above a mass of million suns, black holes should swallow stars whole rather than tearing them apart as they approach. So far, all of the growing number of TDEs come from smaller galaxies, suggesting the limit is real.

TDEs could even provide a window into a more elusive black hole characteristic: its spin. Dheeraj Pasham of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has studied the soft x-ray emissions of three TDEs that pulse in semiregular beats.

Constraints on this property could help solve an enduring mystery: whether giant black holes form by slowly accreting stellar matter over their lifetime—a process expected to produce a fast spin—or by merging with the giant black holes from other galactic cores, which would result in a slower spin.

An x-ray survey of many TDEs could reveal which process dominates. With the tally of captured TDEs growing fast, and hundreds or even thousands of discoveries per year expected from new surveys, researchers are hopeful that the events will answer more questions. Electricity turns garbage into high-quality graphene Method could supply graphene in bulk, opening new uses.

Researchers at Rice University report in Nature this week that they can zap virtually any source of solid carbon, from food scraps to car tires, and turn it into graphene— sheets of carbon atoms prized for use in high-strength plastic and flexible electronics. Current techniques yield tiny amounts of picture-perfect graphene or up to tons of lessprized graphene chunks; the new method already produces grams per day of nearpristine graphene in the lab, and researchers are now scaling it up to kilograms per day.

With atom-thin sheets of carbon atoms arranged like chicken wire, graphene is stronger than steel, conducts electricity and heat better than copper, and can serve as an impermeable barrier. But since its discovery, high-quality graphene—in single sheets or a few stacked layers—has remained expensive to make and purify on an industrial scale. But current techniques, which make graphene by depositing it from a vapor, are too costly for high-volume applications. And higher throughput approaches, such as peeling graphene from chunks of graphite, pro-.

In , James Tour, a chemist at Rice, and his colleagues found they could make a more pure form of graphene—each piece just a few layers thick—by zapping a form of amorphous carbon called carbon black with a laser. Brief pulses heated the carbon to more than kelvins, snapping the bonds between carbon atoms.

As the carbon cooled, it coalesced into graphene. But the approach used a lot of energy to make tiny quantities. So Duy put a dash of carbon black in a glass vial and zapped it with volts for up to milliseconds. Initially he got junk. But after tweaks, he saw a yellowish white flash, indicating the temperature in the vial was about kelvins. Chemical tests revealed he had produced graphene. In , she and her colleagues reported that adding graphene to concrete more than doubled its compressive strength.

When it added just 0. Other research suggests it can improve the durability of asphalt and paint. These applications would require highquality graphene by the ton. Fortunately, the starting point for flash graphene could hardly be cheaper or more abundant: Virtually any organic matter, including coffee grounds, food scraps, old tires, and plastic bottles, can be vaporized to make the material.

Monkey facility in China lures neuroscientist Animal rights conflict spurs move of major German lab By Gretchen Vogel. ICPBR will house as many as nonhuman prisciencemag. Poo hopes it will become an international destination for primate neurobiology, akin to CERN for the particle physics community. That is the positive side of a political system that is able to move very quickly. In , a German TV program broadcast footage from an undercover animal rights activist showing one animal lame and vomiting and another with blood on its head.

Logothetis and colleagues denied any wrongdoing and said the video was misleading and staged. But it triggered an investigation, including a police raid on offices at the institute. Logothetis received death threats. In , he said he would stop work with primates. Initial legal investigations found no violation of animal regulations at his lab.

Max Planck removed Logothetis from direct oversight of animal research at the lab. All charges against him and his colleagues were later dropped and the society lifted all restrictions on his leadership. Max Planck spokesperson Christina Beck says Logothetis had already informed the society of his move, but not the specific timing.

Logothetis has been in negotiations with Poo since at least All five group leaders in his department plan to move with him, he says, along with about half of the roughly 40 current lab members. Not so in Africans, the story that boost immune function and protect goes, because modern humans and against ultraviolet radiation.

A new study overturns that notion, work by Sarah Tishkoff, an evolutionary gerevealing an unexpectedly large amount of neticist at the University of Pennsylvania. Neanderthal ancestry in modern populaShe told Science she has also found highertions across Africa. The ence of Human History. Researchers knew that later backtion from Africa to the Middle East more migrations of Europeans had introduced a than , years ago.

AfThe researchers then calculated the probter correcting for that bias, the new study ability that each stretch of DNA was inherfound similar amounts of Neanderthal DNA ited from a Neanderthal ancestor. Screen for childhood trauma triggers debate Testing across California could have unexpected downsides, critics say many ACEs is also quite scant, Finkelhor says—especially if the trauma was not ren 1 January, California became the cent and the child shows no symptoms.

State officials aim new screen with families. Researchers to cut the health impacts of early life adknow that those with a stable, supportive versity by as much as half within a generacaregiver are more resistant to the negation. But critics say the health benefits of tive health effects of ACEs, so supporting screening are unproven, and it could create caregivers is a top priority, she says.

And demand for services the state cannot provide. The questionnaire, services to all who need them. One measure is set a child on a lifelong trajectory of ill benefit, and some actually caused harm. In , for example, ACEs health. The ease falls in coming years, she says, she depression, and suicide attempts. A followevidence about what to do for a child with will count the effort as a success. To try to stem the toll, MediCal also pays for adults to be screened for ACEs, so that doctors can recommend treatments for stress-related conditions such as addiction and depression.

But some researchers caution that the California screen could have unintended consequences. Because state law requires providers to report child abuse and neglect, David Finkelhor, director of the Crimes. A sharp-eyed collector spotted this translucent flint blade—crafted by hunter-gatherers about years ago—on a Dutch beach. Here, in , the cheerful nurse found her first woolly mammoth tooth. Nearly half a kilometer wide, the beach is made of material dredged from the sea bottom 13 kilometers offshore and dumped on the.

And the endeavor has made 21 million cubic meters of Stone Age soil accessible to archaeologists. That soil preserves traces of a lost world. It all disappeared when glaciers melted and sea level rose about years ago. Now, thanks to the Zandmotor and construction work on a harbor extension in nearby Rotterdam, van Wingerden and a dedicated cadre of amateur beachcombers are amassing an impressive collection of artifacts.

To the north, oversize kites bobbed in the sky, pulling kitesurfers along. Willy van Wingerden has found hundreds of ancient artifacts on beaches near her home in the Netherlands. Scientists on both sides of the North Sea are applying precise new methods to date the artifacts and sequence any genetic traces, as well as mapping the sea floor and analyzing sediment cores.

The effort is bringing to light the landscape and prehistory of a lost homeland of ancient Europeans. The finds show that the region was an inviting place in the few thousand years before it vanished, with forests and river valleys rich in game. The dark, cold waters that now hide the region add to its allure because they preserve organic material for DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating better than on land. And the techniques now being tested to explore the area could aid research on submerged landscapes elsewhere, such as Beringia, the vanished land between Asia and North America inhabited by the first Americans.

Doggerland—which University of Exeter archaeologist Bryony Coles named in the s after the Dogger Banks, a productive North Sea fishing spot—extended from Amsterdam up to Scotland and southern Norway. The region once encompassed at least , square kilometers of dry land, four times the size of the Netherlands today see map, p. But until the Zandmotor was built in , archaeologists had glimpsed only the outlines of Doggerland.

Fishermen had dragged up isolated bones, tusks, and stone tools. In calmer seas, archaeologists might have dived to the sea floor for follow-up searches. But the rough, cold, murky waters of the North Sea, crisscrossed with busy shipping lanes, ruled that out. In his office at the National Museum of Antiquities, archaeologist Luc Amkreutz opens his email and scrolls through messages, some just hours old.

The archaeologists help identify prehistoric artifacts from photos and get access to dozens of specimens in exchange. Other researchers are reaping similar bonanzas. In late , Leiden University Medical Center archaeogeneticist Eveline Altena was part of a research group that invited van Wingerden and other amateurs to an open house, asking them to bring human bones for identification.

The response was overwhelming: In a single day, beachcombers brought more than 50 human skeletal fragments, many suitable for dating and DNA analysis. Niekus and Amkreutz recognized it as a Neanderthal hand tool at least 50, years old. Chemical analysis helped show how Neanderthals used complex methods to process birch bark into tar, as a team including Niekus, Amkreutz, and van Wingerden reported in PNAS.

Tools and other relics , years old or more harken back to when this part of Europe was likely occupied by sciencemag. A vanished landscape Over the millennia, Doggerland has been an icy wasteland, verdant valleys and forests, and now the bottom of the cold North Sea. Various kinds of humans have adapted to all these changes, with Homo antecessor, Neanderthals, and H.

This shaft for an ax, crafted by early European huntergatherers, dates to the final millennia before Doggerland sank below the North Sea. Part of a Neanderthal bone was found nearby. Homo antecessor, an early human thought by many researchers to be an evolutionary dead end. One set of footprints, found in a layer of compressed sand on a beach in the United Kingdom and dated by its geological context, recorded children and adults apparently migrating across a mudflat.

Long cold spells then covered parts of the region in ice. About , years ago, small, hardy bands of Neanderthals arrived on the trail of megafauna such as mammoths and woolly rhinoceros. Neanderthals died out about 45, years ago—about when anatomically modern humans entered Europe.

A few flint tools, found among stones dredged from the sea floor to create artificial sea walls for the Rotterdam harbor, suggest H. More conclusive tools have turned up in the United Kingdom and Belgium, on each side of Doggerland. About 20, years ago, a severe cold spell made the entire region too cold to be habitable. But the end of the last ice age, about 15, years ago, brought a brief idyll: Pollen samples, DNA evidence, and fossilized wood fragments recovered from the sea floor suggest a fertile landscape of forests and rivers, with plentiful birds, fish, and mammals.

Human remains and finely worked stone, bone, and antler tools suggest modern humans Studies of ancient and modern DNA indicate that certain groups of hunter-gatherers entered northern Europe from the south and east perhaps about 14, years ago, after much of the ice had melted; modern European populations still carry their genetic legacy.

The trove of human bones that amateurs turned over to Altena for sampling promises to add to the picture. Of the bones amassed in June , 90 were well-preserved enough for radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis. Altena and researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History SHH in Jena, Germany, identified teeth and bones between and 10, years old, when modern human hunter-gatherers occupied Doggerland.

They have started to extract DNA, and so far have recovered it from more than five individuals. He notes that the DNA could illuminate how these early populations mixed with others in Europe. Maps in hand, the researchers looked for ancient areas suited to human habitation. More than a decade of work paid off last year when Gaffney and Belgian researchers headed to the Brown Banks, about 50 kilometers off the U.

Mapping had suggested that between and 13, years ago, the spot was an elevated area 30 kilometers long, overlooking a river. Among the finds were traces of a fossilized forest 32 meters beneath the waves, including tree roots, terrestrial snail shells, and peat—plus a small flint flake and part of a broken flint hammerstone shaped by hunter-gatherers.

Archaeologist Luc Amkreutz cultivates contacts with local beachcombers, who bring him finds like this Neanderthal tool with a birch tar grip left. About years ago, a massive freshwater lake in North America called Lake Agassiz, formed by melting glaciers, drained suddenly into the sea.

What had been gradual sea-level rise accelerated, and seas rose a few meters within decades. Doggerland transformed from a temperate, forested plain into an estuarial wetland dotted by drier highlands. To explore the impact on people, Amkreutz analyzed dozens of human bones dragged up by fishing boats as well as finds plucked off the Zandmotor and other Dutch beaches. He traced the bones to 18 offshore sites around the prehistoric Rhine River estuary and dated them with radiocarbon to a precision of about years; all were about years old.

He and Niekus then used chemical signatures from collagen preserved in dozens of the bones to analyze what people in Mesolithic Doggerland were eating before and during that transition. As the landscape changed, the diet of its residents did, too, shifting from land animals to freshwater fish. Eventually, that, too, came to an end. On the basis of sediments and computer models, researchers think a tsunami originating off modern-day Norway around B. Soon the landscape vanished as global sea levels continued to rise.

The team scoops up and analyzes all the DNA in a sample, using next-generation sequencing methods that capture millions of DNA fragments, and compares it with libraries of known genomes. This 13,year-old skull fragment of a modern human was fished up off Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Allaby has picked out terrestrial species, including bears, boars, birds, spiders, and mosquitoes. He has identified plant species, too, including hazel and linden trees and meadow grasses. Higher up, in the younger core samples, the DNA tells a tale of inexorable transformation. Researchers say the techniques being pioneered or perfected in the North Sea could be applied to far-flung hot spots of human migration, including Beringia and the waters that surround the archipelagos of Oceania.

But the next day, her luck turned. Tucked in among a pile of seashells, she found a carefully worked tool with characteristic Neanderthal handiwork, dating back at least 45, years: one more piece of a lost landscape, rediscovered. Yet, despite close scientific scrutiny, it is under global threat from a range of. Chief among these are pests and pathogens, remedies to which are either ineffective, short-term, expensive, or impractical.

On page of this issue, Leonard et al. Originally brought to the Americas by early European settlers, the honey bee is now globally distributed and indispensable in agriculture. The varroaDWV nexus is widely blamed for increased honey bee mortality across the temperate world and both mite and virus are nowadays ubiquitous, infecting more or less every hive 5 ; colony collapse is the outcome.

Current treatments include a range of natural and synthetic miticides to kill varroa or high-tech solutions that induce a natural innate host defense mechanism,. This approach seems to offer bees sustainable protection from varroa or DWV. Could this be a silver bullet for the honey bee? RNAi is a biological process found in most eukaryotes that regulates endogenous as well as exogenous foreign RNA, such as that of viruses.

But there is a catch—dsRNA is expensive to produce in large quantities, inherently unstable, and difficult to direct into host cells, where it is needed. Whitten et al. Leonard et al. The next step is to scale up with full-sized colonies, which contain up to 50, individuals, to demonstrate field-realistic feasibility. Furthermore, during spring and summer, varroa mites exert their most serious effects when feeding on honey bee pupae, upon which they also reproduce and to which they efficiently transmit DWV.

If the honey bee larval microbiome reflects that of the adult, then a mechanism of delivery of RNAi from adult to larva exists, though whether RNAi-based varroa-virus defense can be passed on from larva to ensuing pupa awaits confirmation. Once RNAi was activated, honey bees survived infection by a particular virus or parasitic mite. Whether this RNAi-based defense can be passed from adult to larva or via flowers has yet to be determined.

DWV virions. RNAi, to reduce pathogen including viral burden 6. But the former has limited efficacy because mites soon evolve resistance; moreover, miticides can enter the human food chain through contamination of honey. The latter, by contrast, has proven effective in controlling DWV 7 but is expensive and the benefits are temporary—on the order of days or weeks. Now, Leonard et al. Email: robert. Thus, when treated honey bees were subsequently challenged with varroa or DWV, mites died and viral replication was suppressed: a major breakthrough in their control see the figure.

DWV itself comes in two widely distributed genotypes, A and B, the latter of which exhibits higher virulence 10 and is currently spreading across honey bee populations in the United States Methods to optimize sequences that more efficiently target viral RNA [e.

However, the major ethical issue of gene escape needs to be addressed before engineered bacteria are applied to honey bees in the field. Goulson, E. Nicholls, C. Rotheray, Science , Kupferschmidt, Science , Wilfert et al. Martin, L. Brettell, Annu. Grozinger, M. Flenniken, Annu. Desai, Y. Eu, S. Whyard, R. Currie, Insect Mol. Press, McMahon et al. Ryabov et al. Gago-Zachert et al. Kwong, N. Moran, Nat. Chua, W. Kwok, N. Aggarwal, T. Sun, M. Chang, Curr. Nested hybrid nanotubes Material made with atom-thin tubular crystals ystals portends the creation of inventive nanodevices ces By Yury Gogotsi1 and Boris I.

In the nanotechnology era, scientists began creating—atomic layer by atomic layer—materials, building blocks, structures, or even entire devices that do not exist in nature but offer new combinations of properties. On page of this issue, Xiang et al. Atoms-small zero-dimensional 0D , atomsthin 1D, and two-dimensional 2D materials were first made from carbon fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene and later from other elements and compounds.

With the current availability of numerous 2D materials, it is possible to combine them into heterostructures by mechanical transfer, self-assembly in solution, or vapor-phase growth. Mixing and matching 2D crystals with different properties produces van der Waals—bonded stacks with new functionalities 2.

Unlike 2D layers, 0D cages and 1D tubules are topologically protected from being stack-nested and, until recently, were difficult to grow. Xiang et al. Unlike the results of early attempts to produce 1D heterostructures 3 , the outer shells of BN and MoS2 are single-crystalline seamless perfect cylinders. Moreover, the authors showed that a couple of layers of BN and then a layer of MoS2 can be grown on a carbon tube, creating stacked tubular structures see the figure.

Scientists have envisioned 1D heterostructures in theory, but until now, synthetic attempts have produced only disordered shells on multiwall nanotubes 3. The chemical vapor deposition CVD —based growth method demonstrated by Xiang et al. Department of Materials Science and Engineering and A. Email: gogotsi drexel. This opens up an entirely new realm of 1D heterostructures.

Beyond BN and MoS2, other transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2-like compounds of metal with sulfur, selenium, or tellurium and d borides such as TiB2 , oxides, and potentially ally carbides and nitrides 4 can be grown byy CVD on carbon nanotube cores. Carbon nitride, itride, silicene, borophene 5 , and other materials aterials made as 2D layers might be added as well, including predicted nanotubes that have not yet been produced [e. Although Xiang et al. Also, the core tubes of noncarbon compositions [e.

The combination of insulator BN with carbon tubes which, depending on their chirality, can be either semiconducting or metallic might result in new electronic functionalities, leading to versatile nanodevices and even nanoscale machines. The newly described synthesis of 1D heterostructures has several implications for future research. The surface-to-surface templating, rather than atom-to-atom epitaxy, supports 1D tubular crystal growth; this might also be true for syntheses of many 2D materials wherein the interactions between crystalline layers are too weak to support the growth of new crystalline layers well-aligned with the substrate epitaxy.

Moreover, no catalyst was present at the growing edge during nanotube shell growth in the study of Xiang et al. Again, this approach is transferable to planar 2D heterostructures. Not merely a fascinating concept, nested sciencemag. But bacteria are renowned for horizontal gene transfer. From an ecological perspective, the consequences of gene escape need to be scrutinized and the potential for release robustly evaluated. From an evolutionary perspective, high mutation rates confer considerable adaptive potential on RNA viruses, and the consequences of RNAi treatment for the evolution of virulence also warrant attention.

Although sociality—like that exhibited by honey bees—is a very successful ecological strategy, many social insects are invasive pests, such as fire ants Solenopsis invicta and Formosan termites Coptotermes formosanus in the southern United States. Could the silver bullet be turned onto these pest species by genetically modifying their core microbiota for effective, species-specific biocidal control?

Research is still needed to determine whether their gut microbiota are highly conserved yet differ from those of native ants and termites. Other major problems facing honey bees include insecticide mis use and loss of flower-rich habitat 1, 6. Honey bee gut bacteria engineered to alter host expression of genes involved in detoxification or pollen digestion might go some way to resolving these problems, too.

As well as promising insights into fundamental aspects of biology, Leonard et al. A cornucopia of new one-dimensional materials is now possible, structured as nested nanotubes. Illustrated here is a heterostructure of a carbon nanotube, inside two layers of boron nitride, inside molybdenum disulfide. I 1D heterostructures offer tangible benefits.

The oxidation or chemical resistance of carbon nanotubes can be improved by the protective BN sheath 1, 3. A plethora of opportunities arises when stacking 1D crystals coaxially, such as interesting 1D physics in heterostructure electronics. The hybrid shells of 1D heterostructures can be chosen with an electronic band alignment such that interlayer excitons—electrically neutral, short-lived particles normally caused by light—become favored even in the ground state, reaching Bose-Einstein condensation into an excitonic superfluid 9.

This enables scientists to build low-power logic devices or direct-current electrical transformers. Furthermore, the strain gradient from the outer to the inner surface of the tube curvature leads to flexoelectric polarization 10 and a voltage shift inside the tube, which changes the offset of electron energy bands from straddling to staggered. This enables charge separation under light, which gives rise to an electrical current at the junction of the coaxial shells and along the tubes.

New devices such as tunneling diodes and transistors can be fabricated with heterostructures of semiconducting, dielectric, or metallic coaxial nanotubes. All of the materials studied by Xiang et al. The lack of intershell registry between the disparate materials suggests negligible friction superlubricity This property invites the use of 1D heterostructures as nanoscale bearings 12 , which brings scientists a step closer to tiny gears and other nano-. However, before the industry realizes such applications, it must overcome certain challenges, such as the ability to grow 1D heterostructures in forests nanotubes vertically aligned on a substrate , in large quantities in fluidized bed reactors, or in a predetermined location on a silicon chip.

The prospect of developing 1D materials of various compositions can motivate a combinatorial exploration guided by density functional theory computations or artificial intelligence models that predict the best synthesis protocols for 1D heterostructures with attractive properties. This in turn might lead to a new wave of interest in nanotubes, which have been overshadowed in the past decade by 2D materials and their heterostructures. Flat, planar stacks of 2D materials now can retain one dimension only, while having another fold onto itself.

Novoselov et al. Chen et al. Gogotsi, B. Anasori, ACS Nano 13, Mannix, Z. Zhang, N. Guisinger, B. Yakobson, M. Hersam, Nat. Enyashin, A. Ivanovskii, Comput. Tenne, Nat. Bets et al. Gupta et al. Song et al. Cumings, A. Zettl, Science , Drexler, Nanosystems Wiley, On the one hand, it was demonstrated that membrane-bound compartments exchange their contents not only through vesicular transport but also by means of direct membrane tethering at specific contact sites 1 , revealing a new layer of connectivity in eukaryotic cells.

On the other hand, the discovery of membraneless organelles, such as processing bodies P-bodies and stress granules, has revealed that proteins and RNAs can self-assemble and condense into liquid-like droplets through weak and multivalent interactions 2. This indicates that the cytosol is not a randomly dispersed soup of macromolecules but that it is subcompartmentalized.

On page of this issue, Lee et al. By imaging live human cells expressing markers for the ER and for membraneless organelles, Lee et al. Membraneless organelles are biomolecular condensates that form by coalescence of macromolecules. P-bodies and stress granules are archetypical membraneless organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.

Membraneless organelles also occur in the nucleus, including the nucleolus 4 , a factory for ribosome assembly, and Cajal bodies that function in small RNA processing. These weak interactions cause. Email: benoit. Actin filaments nuclewithin the organelle, unlike in ated at the ER were shown to a classical protein complex 2. AlternaMembrane contact sites are tively, the surface of the ER established and maintained by membrane may act like a surprotein complexes that tether factant that helps to disperse two membranes stably and membraneless organelles.

The keep organelles in proximity for ER membrane is charged, and hours. This raises droplets. Or, perhaps the ER numerous questions. What is recruits a specific division mathe molecular nature of the chinery. Because division of a tethering between the ER and liquid droplet requires energy, membraneless organelles? One candidate fission enzymes In human cells, the endoplasmic reticulum red forms stable contacts with stress possibility is that liquid dropinclude adenosine triphosgranules green and processing bodies P-bodies; not shown.

Furtherexchange mRNAs from the droplet, where As for mitochondria and endosomes, the more, inhibition of ER translation did not they are translationally silent, to their site advantage of making droplet fission coincide detach P-bodies from the ER. Therefore, the of expression on the ER. However, the Pwith the ER is unknown and requires further specific nature of the interactions between body and stress granule transcriptomes 5, investigation.

Does it prevent membraneless ER tubules and P-bodies or stress granules 6, 8 are not obviously enriched in mRNAs organelles from getting entangled with the implies the existence of a dedicated mathat are destined to be translated at the ER? Or, perhaps the ER is involved in conchinery, currently unknown, that serves as ER that is, mRNAs encoding secreted protrolling droplet numbers for other reasons. Future experiments will likely reTo answer these questions, it will be essential What is the role of attaching RNA-conveal whether such mRNAs are enriched in to uncover the molecular machines that containing membraneless organelles to the droplets attached to the ER; whether tethnect the ER to P-bodies and stress granules ER?

Connection between the ER and Pering facilitates the transition from transand mediate organelle fission. Moreover, in and whether specific regulatory processes 1. Kornmann, C. Ungermann, Biochim. Cell Res. Although bodies to ER according to cellular needs. Hyman et al. Cell Dev. Brangwynne et al. Wang et al. Organelle tethering sion at sites where ER tubules are present. Kilchert et al. Cell 21, Mekhail et al. Hubstenberger et al. Cell 68, Hoyer et al.

For example, the proximfor two membrane-bound organelles, the Friedman et al. Korobova et al. Helle et al. Hondele et al. Jain et al. Organelle proximThis suggests that contacting the ER is a ity also allows exchange of calcium ions prerequisite for liquid droplets to split. The dria , with minimal disturbance of cytocytoplasm, could ER motion simply apply authors thank E.

Dufresne for discussions on droplet behavior. Because mechanical forces onto membraneless orsubstantial translation occurs at the ER ganelles, causing their division? Mechaniand because P-bodies and stress granules cal forces appear to be an important factor Stitching two chiral centers with one catalyst A single catalyst joins alkyl groups with control over stereochemistry of both fragments By Jianyu Xu and Mary P.

The alkyl electrophiles are acransition metal—based catalysts can tivated through single-electron transfer to chaperone carbon-carbon C—C bond form configurationally unstable radical information between an electrophilic termediates. Recognizing that this instability and a usually nucleophilic partner. Such Pd-based cross-couplings 6.

This approach allowed both enantiojoin unsaturated carbon atoms, as in arylmers of a chiral electrophile to be converted aryl couplings, but many recent efforts have stereoconvergently to a single enantiomer of focused on alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings 2. Chiral nickel Ni —based catalysts By contrast, the development of a have enabled both efficient C—C stereoconvergent cross-coupling of a bond formation as well as conracemic chiral alkyl nucleophile has Orienting alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings trol over the stereochemistry of a proven more challenging.

Although Carbon-carbon bond formation between chiral alkyl centers bearing stereocenter on the electrophilicsuch methods have been developed different groups shown in color; Br, bromine, Zn, zinc with nickel Ni partner alkyl group. Similar control to form alkyl-vinyl and alkyl-aryl catalysts is extended to a variety of nucleophile Nuc partners.

In the coupling of this product of stereocenters on both alkyl fragnucleophile, the chiral catalyst difChiral Ni catalyst Br Nuc ments. On page of this issue, ferentiated a methylene CH2 versus Huo et al. The variahave several drawbacks, including tion possible within this family of the need for harsh carbon nucleob-zincated amides is notable and Chiral nucleophilic partners philes and specific steric requireshows a broad tolerance for many Huo et al. By Huo et al. The coupling Br BrZn come these limitations but presents of two secondary alkyl groups has its own challenges.

In particular, proven difficult, and only limited Chiral Ni the alkylmetal intermediates can examples have been reported. The catalyst decompose through competitive increased steric demand of both alBr BrZn pathways to form alkenes instead of kyl groups often prevents them from being effectively loaded onto the Ni catalyst. Double control Email: mpwatson udel. Such decomposition pathways are theoretically possible with each alkyl reagent, so alkylalkyl couplings have double the potential for this fate.

Through appropriate choice of ligand and control of the redox potentials of the catalyst, these undesired reactions can be mitigated. Zultanski and Fu demonstrated that alkyl electrophiles could be used effectively in cross-couplings 5.

This work, along with studies by other groups, established that these reactions proceed through a mecha-. Brown, J. Choi, G. Fu, Science , eaaf Huo, B. Gorsline, G. Fu, Science , Fu, ACS Cent. Zultanski, G. Fu, J. Fischer, G. Cherney, N. Kadunce, S. Reisman, Chem.

Cordier, R. Lundgren, G. Mu, Y. Shibata, Y. Makida, G. Fu, Angew. Corey, X. Wang, H. Yin, G. Fu, Nature , Krautwald, E. Carreira, J. Monitoring neuronal health A multiscale imaging approach reveals a neuroimmune communication pathway By Axel Nimmerjahn. Despite their different etiologies, a frequent feature of neurodegenerative disorders is the persistent activation of the innate immune system 2. Controlling this inflammatory response in a way that positively affects clinical outcomes for cognition and behavior is a current major challenge and requires deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern neuroimmune interactions.

A microglial process green with P2Y purinoceptor 12 black contacts a neuron cell body pink in mouse. Microglia are damage sensors for the CNS. They continually surveil the parenchyma with highly motile processes and rapidly respond to tissue disturbances.

However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control this structural and functional plasticity remain incompletely understood 4, 5. Much attention has focused on the interaction between microglial processes and neuronal synapses; this work has uncovered their important roles in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and Waitt Advanced Biophotonics Center, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA , USA.

Email: animmerj salk. Inhibiting this protective response results in increased cell loss. Furthermore, given the limited regenerative capacity of the CNS, neurons and their thousands of synaptic connections are typically not replaced when these cells die prematurely 7.

A key role of immune sentinels such as microglia is to protect neurons against intrinsic and extrinsic threats, such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier which restricts extravasation of blood-borne substances into the brain or viral infection. If the threat cannot be eliminated or contained and a neuron becomes critically injured or dysfunctional, microglia face a difficult decision: Should resources be directed toward rescuing this cell, or should the cell be removed to prevent further damage to neighboring and connected neurons?

To help guide this cell fate decision, microglia rely on a number of soluble and membrane-bound signals 8. One important messenger in this context is adenosine triphosphate ATP and its metabolites, including adenosine diphosphate ADP. High extracellular concentrations of ATP and ADP generated by injured and stressed cells are detected by purinergic receptors, including P2Y purinoceptor 12 P2Y12 receptor , that are expressed on microglia.

Lower concentrations of ATP are generally released under physiological conditions—for example, as a coneurotransmitter at synapses 4, 5. Moreover, when they used a propargylic bromide as the electrophilic partner, the products were obtained in high yields and with high selectivity for a single orientation.

The catalyst delivers one stereoisomer of the four possibilities see the figure, bottom. This type of doubly stereoconvergent cross-coupling has only been achieved once before and only worked for the cyclic pyrrolidine nucleophile described above 9. The synthetic implications of this approach are exciting.

The opportunity to clear two stereocenters and disconnect the molecule into two much simpler racemic starting materials is powerful. Although this method requires the products to have amide and alkyne groups, these are ripe for elaboration and derivatization through straightforward manipulations. In addition, the limits of this strategy are not yet defined. Deeper understanding of the mechanism and the role of the amide in coordinating the catalyst will help define the other groups that can be used to organize the key catalytic intermediates and transition states, along with the lengths of the tether that are effective.

Given the importance of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters, there will be a demand to increase the size limits of the alkyl groups and to explore whether a single catalyst can crosscouple tertiary alkylating agents to set vicinal stereocenters in which one or both are quaternary Last, a catalyst has been discovered to deliver only one of the two possible diastereomers. Given that each diastereomer may elicit a different biological response, it will be of interest to see if a complementary catalyst can be discovered to deliver the other diastereomer in equally high enantiomeric excess and yield Alterations processes that protect viable neurons from cell death, distinct combination of proin this pathway may have although the precise mechanisms remain unknown.

For example, Kv2. AdInhibition aggravates Microglial process clusters localize to the soma ditionally, the neuroproteccoverage promotes neurodegeneration ADP and proximal dendrites of tive abilities of microglia are neuron survival and Increased Incr function excitatory and inhibitory likely impaired by dysregulacontact ta time neurons, and functionally tion of their function during tether the plasma memaging or neurodegenerative ATP Difusible ADP ATP Stress messenger s?

Recent genetic analsignals? ADP Kv2. Junctional contact by portant question is how microglial processes corthis new knowledge can be ADP, adenosine diphosphate; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; Kv2. Better mechanism. Because P2Y12 receptor inhiraise the question of what role the purinerunderstanding of this spatiotemporal inbition reduced contact lifetime but did not gic junctions play at different time points teraction will facilitate the design of treatprevent cellular interactions, additional after stroke.

Initially, neuronal hyperexcitments that either augment the beneficial factors may regulate microglial sampling. Changes in extra18, Stephenson et al. Izquierdo, D. Attwell, C. Madry, Trends Neurosci. Instead, such discrimination 5. York, L. Bernier, B. MacVicar, Dev. This was inhibited by likely involves the integration of a variety 6.

Salter, B. Stevens, Nat. Grade, M. Lemke, Nat. Johnson, A. Leek, M. Tamkun, Channels 13, 88 after MCAo, resulting in a larger region of drial stress. Microglial ensheathment likely Additionally, they show provides neuroprotection through various Sandoval, K. Witt, Neurobiol. Shadel and G. Lemke for discussions. Increased microglial process blood plasma components , controlling the NS to A.

Unpicking the proteome in single cells Single-cell mass spectrometry will help reveal mechanisms that underpin health and disease By Nikolai Slavov. This increase has powered new analyses: Whereas traditional analysis of bulk tissue averages all differences between the diverse cells comprising such samples, single-cell analysis characterizes each individual cell and thus has enabled the discovery and classification of previously unknown cell states.

Yet, the nucleicacid—based technologies are effectively blind to an important group of biological regulators: proteins. Fortunately, emerging mass-spectrometry MS technologies that identify and quantify proteins promise to deliver similar gains to single-cell protein analysis. These proteomic technologies will enable high-throughput investigation of key biological questions, such as signaling mechanisms based on protein binding, modifications, and degradation, that have long remained elusive.

The abundance and activity of many proteins are regulated by degradation and posttranslational modifications PTMs that cannot be inferred from genomic and transcriptomic measurements. Moreover, genomic and transcriptomic sequencing cannot report directly on protein-protein interactions and protein localization, which are critical for numerous signaling pathways 1—3. The extracellular matrix surrounding each cell is composed of proteins whose chemical and physical properties, such as stiffness, can also play vital roles in regulating cellular behavior, including proliferation, migration, metastasis, and aging 4.

Yet, current single-cell sequencing tools provide little information about the protein composition and biological roles of the extracellular matrix 3—5. Thus, methodologies are needed that can directly analyze a broad repertoire of intracellular, membrane-bound, and extracellular proteins at the single-cell level.

Single-cell protein analysis has a long history, but the conventional technologies have relatively limited capabilities 6, 7. Email: nslavov neu. Most proteomics methods, such as mass cytometry, cellular indexing of transcriptomes and epitopes by sequencing, RNA expression and protein sequencing, and CODetection by indEXing, rely on antibodies to detect select protein epitopes and can analyze only a few dozen proteins per cell 6 see the figure.

However, many antibodies have low specificity for their targets, which results in nonspecific protein detection. Indeed, fewer than a third of more than a thousand antibodies tested in multiple laboratories bind specifically to their cognate targets 6. Although some highly specific and well-validated antibodies can be useful to analyze a few proteins across many cells, the low specificity and limited throughput of the current generation of single-cell protein analytical methods pose challenges for understanding the interactions and functions of proteins at single-cell resolution.

These methods allow the quantification of thousands of proteins across hundreds of single-cell samples 9, 10 see the figure. A key driver of this progress was the development of multiplexed experimental designs in which proteins from single cells and from the total cell lysate of a small group of cells called carrier proteins are barcoded and then combined 9, With this design, the carrier proteins reduce the loss of proteins from single cells adhering to equipment surfaces while simultaneously enhancing peptide identification.

Other key drivers of progress include methods for clean and automated sample preparation, for which there is preliminary evidence 11 , as well as rigorous computational approaches that incorporate additional peptide features, such as retention time, to determine peptide sequences from limited sample quantities Further technological developments can increase the accuracy of quantification and numbers of analyzed cells by to fold while affording quantification of protein modi-.

For example, the carrier protein approach 9 can be extended to quantify PTMs by using a carrier composed of peptides with PTMs while avoiding the need to enrich modified proteins from single cells and, thus, enrichment-associated protein losses. In general, the emerging technologies offer a trade-off between quantifying low-abundance proteins with increased accuracy or quantifying more proteins.

This trade-off can be mitigated by simultaneously sampling multiple peptides 7. Over the next few years, improvements in sample preparation, peptide separation and ionization, and instrumentation are likely to afford quantification of more than proteins across thousands of single cells, while targeted approaches are poised to enable analysis of even lowabundance proteins of interest 7. MS methods have the potential to measure not merely the abundance and PTMs of proteins in single cells, but also their complexes and subcellular localization.

When proteins form a complex, polypeptide chains from different proteins can get close enough to be cross-linked by small molecules. Because only proteins in the complex are likely to be cross-linked, the abundance of such peptides can report directly on complex formation and composition. Some cross-linked peptide pairs are observed only with specific complex conformations, and thus these pairs can be useful in distinguishing active and inactive complexes.

Furthermore, if a protein complex is close to organelles, targeted MS analysis of crosslinked peptides between the complex and organelle-specific proteins may report on the subcellular localization. Such analysis has not yet been applied to single-cell MS, but is likely to be feasible. Realizing these exciting prospects requires concerted effort and community standards devoted to ensuring that hype does not overshadow scientific rigor.

For sciencemag. Despite their reproducibility, such measurements do not reflect protein abundances in single cells. If reproducibility is misinterpreted as accuracy, the resulting errors may erode the credibility of this emerging field. Single-cell proteomics will find many applications in biomedical research. Some applications, such as classifying cell states and cell types, overlap with those of single-cell RNA sequencing.

Other applications can only be achieved by measuring proteins. For example, the development of cells for regenerative therapies through the rational engineering of directed differentiation. Whereas single-cell RNA sequencing can identify the cells of interest, the amounts of messenger RNA are poor surrogates for the signaling activities mediated by protein modifications, such as phosphorylation or protein cleavage 2, Single-cell proteomics could provide a robust means to characterize such signaling dynamics.

Another potential application is the identification of the sets of molecular interactions leading from a genotype or a stimulus to a phenotype of interest. This goal presents a substantial challenge in part because interacting molecules within a pathway are rarely measured across a large range of phenotypic states to constrain cellular network models.

This limitation is particularly evi-. Single-cell protein analysis Traditional methods identify and quantify a limited number of proteins based on antibodies barcoded with DNA sequences, fluorophores, or transition metals. Emerging single-cell mass-spectrometry MS methods will allow high-throughput analysis of proteins and their posttranslational modifications, interactions, and degradation.

Low-throughput Antibodies bind the epitopes of their cognate proteins and similar epitopes on other proteins. Although there has been much progress in developing directed differentiation protocols for certain cell types, these efforts tend to rely on trial-and-error approaches Many of the resulting protocols remain relatively inefficient: Only a fraction of the cells differentiate into the desired cell type, and such cells may not fully recapitulate the desired physiological phenotypes Next-generation single-cell proteomics analysis offers an alternative to this trialand-error approach.

If the signaling events usually mediated by protein interactions and PTMs that guide cell differentiation during normal development can be identified, it should be possible to recapitulate such signaling in induced pluripotent stem cells. This would require identifying the signaling. Proteins are digested to peptides. The peptides are barcoded and ionized. Individual ion peaks are isolated and fragmented for MS. Peptide fragments allow identifcation of the peptide sequence. MS analysis of the barcodes allows quantifcation in single cells.

Yet, proteins are key regulators in cells; models that ignore them cannot capture molecular mechanisms involving protein interactions. For example, the absence of direct protein measurements compromises the ability to study signaling networks because most of the key regulatory variables are missing from the data. Currently, when proteins and their PTMs are measured in bulk tissues, they have been analyzed in a few tens to a few hundreds of samples 2, 3.

Analyzing so few samples tends to require assumptions about the specific sets of interactions and functional dependencies that occur between interacting proteins and molecules. Such assumptions fundamentally underpin the inferred biological mechanisms and undermine their validity 3.

Next-generation single-cell protein analytical technologies will reduce these assumptions and thus increase the validity of inferred mechanisms. If proteins, RNAs, DNA, and metabolites are measured across tens of thousands of individual cells, it may be possible to identify direct molecular interactions without the need to make assumptions about basic aspects of the pathway.

Next-generation single-cell analysis is poised to generate just this type of data, which should underpin systems-level understanding of intracellular and extracellular regulatory mechanisms. Single-cell proteomics may also have clinical applications. Protein measurements from limited clinical samples are attractive because they afford direct measurements of deregulated signaling pathways that drive disease. Furthermore, measuring protein concentrations allows the development of assays to test therapies that induce protein degradation, which are among the most rapidly growing therapeutic modalities Additionally, protein assays may be more robust than RNAsequencing assays because protein concentrations are less noisy and proteins degrade more slowly than RNAs.

Moreover, the cost of protein analysis will decrease proportionately with increased multiplexing 7, The latest generation of nucleic acid— based single-cell analytical methods has opened the door to describing the varied and complex constellation of cell states that exist within tissue. The next generation of proteomics-based methods will complement current methods while shifting the emphasis from description toward functional characterization of these cell states.

Sabatini, Proc. Franks, E. Airoldi, N. Liu, A. Beyer, R. Aebersold, Cell , Segel et al. Cote et al. Levy, N. Slavov, Essays Biochem. Specht, N. Slavov, J. Proteome Res. Bradbury, A. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. That's it. That sounds just like a futures contract! I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant.

I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me. Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this. In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1.

As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways. People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made or take delivery of the thing they need. If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery.

If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances. These contracts are incredibly byzantine and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers. In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them.

I i do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle ii do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and iii love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! To execute a basic collar also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes , you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity.

The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies you can only profit up to the strike price of the call but also writes down your risk. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do.

They're made of two parts; a Master which is a form agreement that's always the same and a Schedule which amends the Master to include your specific terms. First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA. Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps?

You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps.

I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once.

It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire. You pick a company.

Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg. And you write in A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course.

But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking? Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt loans or bonds. They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC.

They caused this! Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt.

They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular and remain so is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain.

The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama. Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now. This happens in three different ways.

The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position , they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc.

Enough technical details. I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live.

But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here. Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post. Post will drop Monday at market open. Forex option trading is that the acceptable who need higher benefits and need to shape your cash by exchanging. I9option is that the market chief as far as exchanging stages and a great many people utilize this stage for alternatives exchanging.

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Forex alternatives are accessible two contrasting sorts the essential is vanilla choices type and in this way the second is SPOT choices. SPOT choices are a comparable as a paired alternative since it's upheld yes or no. All brokers realize that forex alternatives exchanging is very not the same as other exchanging choices and you might want to know it appropriately. In forex choices exchanging dealers can expect a cost and timeframe over the counter steady with their arrangement and examination.

The conventional call or vanilla choice inside the forex choices exchanging is that the principal type. In these choices, dealers can without much of a stretch purchase or sell such a money upheld cost and in this manner the time of your time. SPOT choices likewise called double or computerized exchanging alternatives. Fortunately, a new solution is now available to UK traders via a new United Kingdom Financial regulatory ruling.

More scrutiny from UK banks about financial transactions, even to binary optionsIn short, banks will have to take more responsibility about the financial transactions they facilitate. This new ruling should lead to the creation of a new code of conduct that will help defrauded people to have their funds recovered by their bank, unless it is proven they acted recklessly. The broad protection should kick for many online scheme and scams, whether it is fake investment companies, fraudulent binary options brokers or those scammers who promise to help you recover your stolen funds…only to steal from you once again.

On the other hands, it means the banks will be more likely to forbid transactions to legit businesses, such as reputable cryptocurrency exchanges or honest smart options platforms. The regulating bodies and financial institutions are taking a number of measures to prevent financial fraud. Binary options trading, in particular, is being controlled with a greater degree of robustness to protect the unwary general public being drawn into a situation where they suffer financial losses.

Many hundreds of people around the world are targeted each day. The individual only realizes the extent of the fraud when eventually when the fraudsters finally decide that there is no more money to be had and shut down the account and promptly vanish without trace. Spotting Fraudulent Binary Options Broker Some lawyers in the financial fraud division are very familiar with the pattern of behaviour demonstrated by the fraudulent brokers and the distress caused by their dealings with inexperienced investors.

There is a track of record of recovery in relation to financial fraud and has a number of strategies and tactics to compel the fraudulent broker or associated financial service providers to restore funds to those who have been deceived. Needless to say, the fraudsters are accomplished at hiding their tracks and frequently there are myriad inter-connected limited liability companies, often some are registered in different countries, with some dormant and some active.

It is hardly surprising if the complexity of the situation results in a failure to discover a single person who can be challenged and held accountable. However, there are various channels financial fraud lawyers use when attempting to retrieve money for clients and each avenue is investigated. Whilst an individual may be alarmed and confused at the prospect of navigating through the complex structures that have been deliberately set up to confuse, Financial fraud lawyers are usually quite familiar with strategies fraudsters use, and frequently can steer a course to the recovery of some or all of the lost money.

It is fully understandable that such a situation will leave the victim decidedly risk-averse. There have been experiences with class actions against the fraudulent brokers and has developed links with litigation funding organizations in order to offset the risk in respect of class actions. The lessons that can be drawn from the experiences of those individuals who have had the misfortune of losing their investments to fraudsters are to be extremely cautious.

Always consider every offer or investment for at least 48 hours before making a decision, a genuine broker will understand the caution that a new investor will view a proposition. All investments carry a risk and anything that promises a return on your initial investment seems to be significantly higher than normal it is almost certainly not to be trusted. Do not allow yourself to be hurried into a decision, it is highly unlikely that an authentic broker would try to rush you into an investment, especially if you demonstrated reluctance; their reputation would suffer by such behaviour.

You can now recover all money lost to bitcoin, binary options, cryptocurrency, investment, scam by hiring any one of these Verified Wealth Recovery Experts. Google Play set to ban binary options Google Play recently came out with new updates and policies for April spanning over a number of topics including hate speech, child endangerment, user produced content, fantasy sports apps, and app metadata. However, there was never a blanket ban against those types of apps. Regulated brokers providing Binary Options trading could remain on Google Play until now.

Apple, however, passed a complete ban on Binary Options apps at around the same time in its App Store. Last month, after increased pressure from various regulators Google AdWords issued a ban on all Binary Options associated ads, as part of a new controlled financial products procedure.

Additionally, Google banned all crypto and ICO ads, and in June it will demand prior advertiser certification for running ads pertaining to other types of financial trading products including Contracts for Difference CFDs and spot forex.

It comes as no surprise that Google Play is now taking similar action by instituting a blanket ban on Binary apps. Is the end of binary options? This comes as it is in the midst of enacting new laws governing leveraged and online trading. The new regulations are scheduled to come into effect across the EU later this year.

The new Google Play binary options policy for April can be seen here. Forex options trading is called derivatives and based on currency pairs. Forex options include a huge variety of analyses and strategies. I9option offers the best in class features for forex options trading and it is totally safe. In FX options trading there is no limit to delivering physical assets.

Forex options come in two different types the first is vanilla options type and the second is SPOT options. SPOT options are the same as a binary option because it is based on yes or no. All traders know that forex options trading is very different from other trading options and you need to understand it properly.

In forex options trading traders can assume a price and time period over the counter according to their understanding and analysis. The traditional call or vanilla option in the forex options trading is the first type. In these options, traders can easily buy or sell any type of currency based on price and the period of time. You can also hold the currency for a long time and a short time in FX options. SPOT options also called binary or digital trading options.

Forex options trading is the good who want higher profits and want to make your money by trading. You can choose i9option. I9option is the market leader in terms of trading platforms and thousands of people use this platform for options trading. Visit i9option for more information and know more about FX options trading. Help you understand general Forex concepts Help you to understand key words in Forex Leverage ect.

Can you trade without being greedy and scared? Can you afford to lose money to gain knowledge and money? Can you manage your risk properly? Do you recognise the importance of your trading plan? Do you have a positive attitude? All of our trade signals are from correct and professional technical and fundamental analysis.

You must be aware of the risks and be willing to accept them in order to invest in the stock, binary options or futures markets. Don't trade with money you can't afford to lose especially with leveraged instruments such as binary options trading, futures trading or Forex trading. No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to those discussed on this Subreddit.

The past performance of any trading system or methodology is not necessarily indicative of future results. You could lose all of your money fast due too: poor market trading conditions, mechanical error, emotional induced errors, news surprises and earnings releases just as well as grow your profits incredibly due to the same reasons. Advances in technology and new standards surrounding automated trading are pushing us ever closer to transforming the industry. If this sounds very much like a science fiction movie, we can assure you it is not.

In fact, artificial intelligence AI is already being utilized by banks, but its going to take a little longer for people to catch up to the idea that their investment is as safe, if not safer than it would be if their investments were handled by humans. An analysis by Accenture indicates that between and , banks that invest in AI and human-machine collaboration at the same rate as top-performing businesses could boost their revenue by an average of 34 percent.

As far as discernment in artificial intelligence in trading go, algorithmic trading is perhaps the most discussed of all. If we take a closer look at its application today, automated trading reflects our attitudes towards technology and how it is evolving the way we invest. Yet much of the discussion is still fixated on the hypothetical scenarios that automated trading would take over human jobs. Much less weight is being placed on the fact that AI through its fundamental form known to many as algorithmic trading has been used by institutional and retail investors for almost a decade now.

Introducing these features on a sleek user-friendly app is a strategic step-by-step approach to help the public get used to a whole different way of investing on an efficient and trustworthy Peer to Peer Derivatives Market platform like Level The level of freedom granted to users on Level01 is enticing and highly persuasive. The order is not filled or matched almost immediately, and after 4 seconds, the EUUSD spot price has moved by 1. In this case, a contract is being offered below fair value.

Now take a look at Chart 01 below. You can tell that the fair value is highly dependent on the spot rate. Thus, if a retail investor submits an offer to an exchange, it might be filled at a time when it is already below the fair value — an undesirable scenario for investors. Such scenarios will stop investors from submitting further offers to the exchange.

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Hi I am glad icocrypto exists because as a crypto trader and a big enthusiast I want to do my part to keep this space clean. I have been observing a worrying trend that I wanted to share my opinion on and alert fellow investors and traders on giving real hard facts that could save us all, collectively, a lot of money and emotional pain.

He was around my age and also a consultant to one of my fledgeling businesses in the Quebec region. At first I thought it was some hoax or prank but he had mentioned to me about some personal problems he was going through during our working relationship. Little did I know the situation was far darker and serious than he had led on, otherwise I would have helped. I am talking about Fred Turbide who killed himself in his garage leaving behind a sad and bankrupt family.

He was lied to and cheated out of his live savings by an Israeli binary options company called 23Traders. They rebranded to invest. Having dabbled in binary options before, I knew it was a fun way to trade where one could make a lot of money but after my broker IQ option I will talk a little bit more about them later in this post because they are planning to ICO!

If you know where to look, you can easily find them and the truth emerges. Before Spot Option and IQ option type of brokers entered binary options actually it was fun and fair and regulated brokers existed but these firms completely destroyed everything by greed and praying upon the hope of the desperate. Do not fuel their intentions or fall prey to their lies. I have so much evidence if any one has questions I will post more.

Please DO NOT give these scammers any money, they have already swindled millions from poor people around the world and now want to use the "lack of information" in the crypto currency about what really went on in the binary options space to create scarcity value and try and hype up their scam. Please post here your responses.

I am not promoting anything here I just don't want these leeches to steal any more money. So What is Binary Boom Software all about? Is Binary Boom Software scam or does it really work? To find answers to these concerns continue reading my in depth and honest Binary Boom Review below. What is Binary Boom? Binary Boom is basically a binary options trading software application that is developed to assistance traders win and predict the market trends with binary options.

The software likewise offers evaluations of the market conditions so that traders can know exactly what should be your next step. It provides different secret techniques that ultimately assists. After you see it working, you can start to execute your method with regular sized lots.

This technique will pay off with time. Every Forex binary options trader should select an account type that is in accordance with their needs and expectations. A bigger account does not imply a bigger profit potential so it is a great concept to begin little and slowly add to your account as your returns increase based on the trading selections you make. Binary Options Trading To assist you trade binary options effectively, it is very important to have an understanding behind the principles of Binary Options Trading.

Currency Trading, or foreign exchange, is based upon the perceived value of. Keep this in mind as you trade and discover more about binary options to optimize your learning experience. Are the trades on the Binary Boom website actually live and occurring today this very second"? Yes, trades are genuine. Exactly what you're seeing are genuine trades that Binary Boom is placing right now in my Binary Options brokerage account, as they're being traded.

The entry and expiry prices and times are all accurate and precise. So People can not copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website, and because a 20 second delay is fair: on the one hand, They as much better results due to the fact that these are 60 second Binary options trades and rate can still change throughout the last 40 seconds.

On the other hand, anyone attempting to copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website won't get the real outcomes of Binary Boom as they'll be copying trades that are 20 seconds old. So people can't copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website. So dennis anker decided that a 20 second delay was fair because it prevents manually copying the trades, but it doesn't enable enough time to falsify the results you see with any degree of consistency.

That's a win win situation - I can be sure that no one is copying trades from the Binary Boom site and you can be sure that the outcomes are genuine. Here's why: BinaryBoom places 60 second Binary options trades. This is very important because when binary boom spots a trend it will place multiple trades for maximum profits!

If you're streaming existing market prices, it's difficult to know which rate will be 60 seconds from now. It's likewise impossible to understand which rate will certainly be 40 seconds from now. Simply puts, the preliminary 20 seconds of each trade offers dennis anker NO benefit in knowing where rate will certainly be when a 60 second Binary Options trade expires. Do not believe me? Do the following: Go to ANY broker, select any currency pair, then try speculating if cost will be above or below the existing market price after 40 seconds.

Wait 40 seconds. Do that 10 times. Is it safe to download the BinaryBoom software? First, binary boom is a Microsoft Verified Publisher. It's really HARD to get this kind of certification, but means that software publishers who do are the most reliable on the web. What The Heck Is Boom? A boom is when a currency pair has started to trend, That is the reason binary boom is so profitable it place's trades within a trend!

Binary Boom Summary In summary, there are some obvious concepts that have actually been tested in time, as well as some newer strategies. Hopefully, as long as you follow exactly what we suggest in this article you can either get started with trading with Binary Boom or enhance on exactly what you have already done. Binary option trading is a relatively new development in the retail trading world. Five years ago, no one had even heard of it.

Since however, the popularity of binary options surged as a result of aggressive marketing by binary option brokers, and the promotion of binary trading software by the trading "gurus". Right now, interest on the topic continues to grow at record levels. Given its current popularity, binary options are likely to be the first "asset" that beginners start trading with. However, just because something is new and popular Who remembers the fuss over bitcoin trading?

Opportunities come and go all the time in the retail trading space

BETTING ODDS ON SCOTTISH REFERENDUM

In forex options trading traders can assume a price and time period over the counter according to their understanding and analysis. The traditional call or vanilla option in the forex options trading is the first type. In these options, traders can easily buy or sell any type of currency based on price and the period of time.

You can also hold the currency for a long time and a short time in FX options. SPOT options also called binary or digital trading options. Forex options trading is the good who want higher profits and want to make your money by trading. You can choose i9option.

I9option is the market leader in terms of trading platforms and thousands of people use this platform for options trading. Visit i9option for more information and know more about FX options trading. Help you understand general Forex concepts Help you to understand key words in Forex Leverage ect. Can you trade without being greedy and scared? Can you afford to lose money to gain knowledge and money? Can you manage your risk properly? Do you recognise the importance of your trading plan?

Do you have a positive attitude? All of our trade signals are from correct and professional technical and fundamental analysis. You must be aware of the risks and be willing to accept them in order to invest in the stock, binary options or futures markets.

Don't trade with money you can't afford to lose especially with leveraged instruments such as binary options trading, futures trading or Forex trading. No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to those discussed on this Subreddit. The past performance of any trading system or methodology is not necessarily indicative of future results.

You could lose all of your money fast due too: poor market trading conditions, mechanical error, emotional induced errors, news surprises and earnings releases just as well as grow your profits incredibly due to the same reasons. Advances in technology and new standards surrounding automated trading are pushing us ever closer to transforming the industry. If this sounds very much like a science fiction movie, we can assure you it is not. In fact, artificial intelligence AI is already being utilized by banks, but its going to take a little longer for people to catch up to the idea that their investment is as safe, if not safer than it would be if their investments were handled by humans.

An analysis by Accenture indicates that between and , banks that invest in AI and human-machine collaboration at the same rate as top-performing businesses could boost their revenue by an average of 34 percent.

As far as discernment in artificial intelligence in trading go, algorithmic trading is perhaps the most discussed of all. If we take a closer look at its application today, automated trading reflects our attitudes towards technology and how it is evolving the way we invest. Yet much of the discussion is still fixated on the hypothetical scenarios that automated trading would take over human jobs. Much less weight is being placed on the fact that AI through its fundamental form known to many as algorithmic trading has been used by institutional and retail investors for almost a decade now.

Introducing these features on a sleek user-friendly app is a strategic step-by-step approach to help the public get used to a whole different way of investing on an efficient and trustworthy Peer to Peer Derivatives Market platform like Level The level of freedom granted to users on Level01 is enticing and highly persuasive.

The order is not filled or matched almost immediately, and after 4 seconds, the EUUSD spot price has moved by 1. In this case, a contract is being offered below fair value. Now take a look at Chart 01 below. You can tell that the fair value is highly dependent on the spot rate. Thus, if a retail investor submits an offer to an exchange, it might be filled at a time when it is already below the fair value — an undesirable scenario for investors. Such scenarios will stop investors from submitting further offers to the exchange.

This allows investors to simultaneously compete for the best offers without imposing them with a requirement to have their own algorithms for price estimation and having them continuously updating the quote manually. With an advanced Blockchain platform, AI and inbuilt frameworks that are designed to favor the user, Level01 will shape the future of automated trading on its Peer to Peer Derivatives Exchange at scale and speed that the world will come to marvel. Hi I am glad icocrypto exists because as a crypto trader and a big enthusiast I want to do my part to keep this space clean.

I have been observing a worrying trend that I wanted to share my opinion on and alert fellow investors and traders on giving real hard facts that could save us all, collectively, a lot of money and emotional pain. He was around my age and also a consultant to one of my fledgeling businesses in the Quebec region. At first I thought it was some hoax or prank but he had mentioned to me about some personal problems he was going through during our working relationship.

Little did I know the situation was far darker and serious than he had led on, otherwise I would have helped. I am talking about Fred Turbide who killed himself in his garage leaving behind a sad and bankrupt family. He was lied to and cheated out of his live savings by an Israeli binary options company called 23Traders. They rebranded to invest. Having dabbled in binary options before, I knew it was a fun way to trade where one could make a lot of money but after my broker IQ option I will talk a little bit more about them later in this post because they are planning to ICO!

If you know where to look, you can easily find them and the truth emerges. Before Spot Option and IQ option type of brokers entered binary options actually it was fun and fair and regulated brokers existed but these firms completely destroyed everything by greed and praying upon the hope of the desperate. Do not fuel their intentions or fall prey to their lies. I have so much evidence if any one has questions I will post more. Please DO NOT give these scammers any money, they have already swindled millions from poor people around the world and now want to use the "lack of information" in the crypto currency about what really went on in the binary options space to create scarcity value and try and hype up their scam.

Please post here your responses. I am not promoting anything here I just don't want these leeches to steal any more money. So What is Binary Boom Software all about? Is Binary Boom Software scam or does it really work? To find answers to these concerns continue reading my in depth and honest Binary Boom Review below. What is Binary Boom? Binary Boom is basically a binary options trading software application that is developed to assistance traders win and predict the market trends with binary options.

The software likewise offers evaluations of the market conditions so that traders can know exactly what should be your next step. It provides different secret techniques that ultimately assists. After you see it working, you can start to execute your method with regular sized lots. This technique will pay off with time. Every Forex binary options trader should select an account type that is in accordance with their needs and expectations.

A bigger account does not imply a bigger profit potential so it is a great concept to begin little and slowly add to your account as your returns increase based on the trading selections you make. Binary Options Trading To assist you trade binary options effectively, it is very important to have an understanding behind the principles of Binary Options Trading.

Currency Trading, or foreign exchange, is based upon the perceived value of. Keep this in mind as you trade and discover more about binary options to optimize your learning experience. Are the trades on the Binary Boom website actually live and occurring today this very second"? Yes, trades are genuine. Exactly what you're seeing are genuine trades that Binary Boom is placing right now in my Binary Options brokerage account, as they're being traded.

The entry and expiry prices and times are all accurate and precise. So People can not copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website, and because a 20 second delay is fair: on the one hand, They as much better results due to the fact that these are 60 second Binary options trades and rate can still change throughout the last 40 seconds.

On the other hand, anyone attempting to copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website won't get the real outcomes of Binary Boom as they'll be copying trades that are 20 seconds old. So people can't copy trades straight from the Binary Boom website. So dennis anker decided that a 20 second delay was fair because it prevents manually copying the trades, but it doesn't enable enough time to falsify the results you see with any degree of consistency.

That's a win win situation - I can be sure that no one is copying trades from the Binary Boom site and you can be sure that the outcomes are genuine. Here's why: BinaryBoom places 60 second Binary options trades. This is very important because when binary boom spots a trend it will place multiple trades for maximum profits! If you're streaming existing market prices, it's difficult to know which rate will be 60 seconds from now. It's likewise impossible to understand which rate will certainly be 40 seconds from now.

Simply puts, the preliminary 20 seconds of each trade offers dennis anker NO benefit in knowing where rate will certainly be when a 60 second Binary Options trade expires. Do not believe me? Do the following: Go to ANY broker, select any currency pair, then try speculating if cost will be above or below the existing market price after 40 seconds.

Wait 40 seconds. Do that 10 times. Is it safe to download the BinaryBoom software? First, binary boom is a Microsoft Verified Publisher. It's really HARD to get this kind of certification, but means that software publishers who do are the most reliable on the web. What The Heck Is Boom?

A boom is when a currency pair has started to trend, That is the reason binary boom is so profitable it place's trades within a trend! Binary Boom Summary In summary, there are some obvious concepts that have actually been tested in time, as well as some newer strategies.

Hopefully, as long as you follow exactly what we suggest in this article you can either get started with trading with Binary Boom or enhance on exactly what you have already done. Binary option trading is a relatively new development in the retail trading world. Five years ago, no one had even heard of it. Since however, the popularity of binary options surged as a result of aggressive marketing by binary option brokers, and the promotion of binary trading software by the trading "gurus".

Right now, interest on the topic continues to grow at record levels. Given its current popularity, binary options are likely to be the first "asset" that beginners start trading with. However, just because something is new and popular Who remembers the fuss over bitcoin trading? Opportunities come and go all the time in the retail trading space So let's take a moment to examine binary options, and see if it's something we should be paying attention to.

But before we do that, let's first take a quick look at traditional i. Because then they would be getting revenue in a weaker currency USD while having to pay expenses in a stronger currency Euro in their home country. This results in a significantly lower net profit, or even worse, a net loss.

Forex option contracts were thus introduced to solve this problem, as any losses stemming from currency fluctuations could be offset by profits made from buying options contracts. Thus, any operational losses in the future due to a high EUUSD rate can be offset by the profits gained from those option contracts. This is, and continues to be, the main purpose of Forex option contracts.

Now of course, in order for the German company to buy call options, someone has to be willing to sell it to them. Perhaps, a financial institution in France does not believe that the EUUSD will continue to strengthen over the next 12 months, and so is willing sell call options to the German company. This, by the way, is how financial markets work. Participants have varying views of the future, and so trade against each other in line with their own expectations.

In this transaction, the German company pays a fee in buying call options to protect against future currency risk, while the financial institution gets paid to take on that risk. To summarize: - The German car company looks to limit future currency risk by buying call options - The financial institution or speculator collects a fee from selling call options and assumes the currency risk More generally: - Option buyers pay a fixed fee for the potential of a very large profit - Option sellers collect a fixed fee for the potential of a very large loss FOREX BINARY OPTIONS In a vanilla option trade, the buyer does not know in advance the amount of money he stands to win.

Similarly, the seller does not know in advance the amount of money he stands to lose. The amount is ultimately determined by how far the market price moves. In a binary option trade however, the trader will know in advance the exact amount he stands to win or lose, before taking the trade.

Binary options are named as such because there are exactly only two possible outcomes: you either win a fixed amount, or lose a fixed amount. Binary options ask a simple question: will the price be above [price level] at [time]? If you think so, you buy the binary option. If you don't, you sell. That's pretty much all there is to binary options. This is a big benefit to new traders, as they can quickly learn the basic mechanics and start trading right away.

A related benefit of this, is having to make fewer trading decisions. In spot forex trading, for example, one has to decide: - Where and when to enter the market - The appropriate trading lot size to use - How to manage the trade - Where and when to close the trade In binary option trading however, there are only 2 decisions to make: - Whether the market price will be above a certain price level at a certain time - How much to risk on the trade As such, binary options offer a much simpler trading process.

And, since the potential loss on each trade is fixed, you will never get a margin call. Lastly, options offer traders the unique ability to make money by predicting where prices will NOT go. This goes for all types of options, not just binary options.

So… does binary option trading sound good? Sure it does! In this sense, a binary option trade is typically an all-or-nothing proposition. These points on inflexibility can be summarized by the following comment found in the Forex Factory forums : "I once traded a forex news item where I closed a wrong call with a 20 pips loss, and ended up making pips on the reverse trade, giving me a net profit of pips.

This scenario cannot be replicated in binary options. The implication of these factors is that the average loss per trade will always be larger than the average profit. This is a structural i. The promise of regular fixed payouts and a focus on short-term profits are exactly the characteristics that appeal to people looking for a quick buck. Unfortunately for them, what feels good in trading is typically a losing approach.

You see This is an exceptionally difficult feat to accomplish. Whenever the market settles at a particular price level, it is not settling at a dozen other price levels. Does this make sense? This root concept may then be expanded to form a complete binary option trading strategy that you can use.

Note however, that this is a benefit available to all types of options, not just binary options. One reservation I have about binary options is that they do not serve a major commercial purpose. Unlike the spot and derivatives markets that serve to benefit society, binary options exist solely for speculation purposes. In other words, it can be reasonably argued that binary option trading is not much different than a casino game.

Without a commercial purpose, binary options could be banned tomorrow and not impact anyone else other than the brokers and speculators. Compare this to spot Forex trading, or Forex futures trading, upon which global commerce relies. These markets are unlikely to be closed or banned, because they serve a useful purpose beyond speculation. Some years ago, expert advisors were the hot topic.

Slowly but surely, people are now gradually realizing that "automated trading" isn't as amazing as it's cracked up to be. Will binary options follow suit? My opinion is yes, I think they will. Did I miss mentioning any important points? Let me know what you think! The original article is published here submitted by pipmavens to investing [link] [comments]. Is The Private Society Software application scam or does it really work? To find answers to these concerns continue reading my in depth and truthful The Private Society Review below.

What is The Private Society? The Private Society is generally a binary options trading software that is developed to assistance traders win and forecast the marketplace trends with binary options. The software application likewise provides analyses of the market conditions so that traders can know what should be your next step.

It provides different secret strategies that ultimately assists. After you see it working, you can begin to execute your technique with regular sized lots. This approach will settle over time. Every Forex binary options trader must select an account type that is in accordance with their requirements and expectations. A bigger account does not imply a larger profit potential so it is a great concept to start little and slowly add to your account as your returns increase based upon the trading choices you make.

Binary Options Trading To help you trade binary options properly, it is very important to have an understanding behind the principles of Binary Options Trading. Currency Trading, or foreign exchange, is based upon the viewed value of 2 currencies pairs to one another, and is impacted by the political stability of the country, inflation and interest rates to name a few things.

The Private Society Summary In summary, there are some obvious ideas that have actually been checked in time, along with some newer techniques. Hopefully, as long as you follow what we suggest in this short article you can either begin with trading with The Private Society or enhance on what you have actually already done. This fortune trader is actually showing you on camera how he uses this fully automated lighting fast trading tool!

Whats Going On? You will learn if Rich Mom really Works or is a scam? To discover answers to these concerns continue reading my in depth and honest Rich Mom Review below. Exactly what is Rich Mom? Rich Mom is a New binary options trading software that is developed to assistance traders win and forecast the market trends with binary options.

The software also provides analyses of the market conditions so that traders can know exactly what should be your next step. It provides different secret techniques that ultimately helps. This method will pay off in time. A larger account does not indicate a larger revenue potential so it is a great idea to begin small and quickly add to your account as your returns increase based on the winning trades that the software will make. Binary Options Trading To assist you trade binary options correctly, it is very important to have an understanding behind the principles of Binary Options Trading.

Currency Trading, or foreign exchange, is based on the perceived value of 2 currencies pairs to one another, and is impacted by the political stability of the country, inflation and interest rates to name a few things.

Keep this in mind as you trade and discover more about binary options to maximize your learning experience. Rich Mom Summary In summary, there are some evident concepts that have been tested over time, along with some newer techniques. Ideally, as long as you follow exactly what we recommend in this article you can either get started with trading with Rich Mom or enhance on what you have already done.

So What is Cash Code Software all about? Is Cash Code Software application scam or does it really work? To find answers to these concerns continue reading my in depth and honest Cash Code Review below. This newly released system will do all the work for you. Exactly what is Cash Code? Cash Code is basically a binary options trading software that is designed to assistance traders win and forecast the marketplace trends with binary options. The software application also provides analyses of the market conditions so that traders can know exactly what should be your next step.

It provides different secret methods that ultimately assists. After you see it working, you can start to implement your method with routine sized lots. This technique will pay off over time. Every Forex binary options trader must choose an account type that is in accordance with their needs and expectations. A larger account does not suggest a bigger earnings potential so it is a fantastic idea to start little and slowly add to your account as your returns increase based on the trading selections you make.

Binary Options Trading To assist you trade binary options correctly, it is very important to have an understanding behind the basics of Binary Options Trading. Currency Trading, or foreign exchange, is based on the perceived value of 2 currencies pairs to one another, and is affected by the political stability of the country, inflation and interest rates to name a few things. Keep this in mind as you trade and learn more about binary options to maximize your learning experience.

Cash Code Summary In summary, there are some obvious concepts that have actually been tested with time, as well as some more recent techniques. Ideally, as long as you follow what we suggest in this article you can either begin with trading with Cash Code or improve on what you have actually already done. This new video is taking the internet by storm.. First off, if you are not familiar with a No-Touch option, it is a simple variation on a One Touch option.

One Touch options are some of the most common binary options. When you purchase a One Touch contract, it works like this: You look at a given asset, and you wager that the price will touch a certain trigger value before the binary option How to Spot Binary Option Scams. There are a number of tell tale scam signs that one can look for when with both a broker and a Managed Account provider.

First among these is a lack of important company information on their homepage. Brokers who operate in the shadows and merely want to grab your money will try to provide as little concrete company level information. It is important to look The new FX Options from IQOption combine the best of both worlds — a derivative option with binary returns that trade like spot forex positions.

FX Options Brokers. Forex Binary Options vs. Spot Forex Trading. As Forex trading grows in popularity, it is not uncommon to see an interest in Forex binary options rise as well. Both of these trading strategies can be of use to the Forex trader, providing an opportunity to earn money. What are binary options. A binary option is a type of option with a fixed payout in which you predict the outcome from two possible results. If your prediction is correct, you receive the agreed payout.

If not, you lose your initial stake, and nothing more. It's called 'binary' because there can be only two outcomes — win or lose. Advantages of binary options trading. Aside from the Binary options are an alternative way to play the foreign currency forex market for traders. Although they are a relatively expensive way to trade forex compared with the leveraged spot forex Binary Options allows you to trade, forex, commodities, indices, stocks and basically any investment with a variable value.

This is limited only to what the broker is willing to take to the selection. Unless you only want to trade currencies, this is huge factor and main reason to choose binary options. There are many advantages and disadvantages to both binary options and spot forex. Max Risk. Following an overhaul on laws governing over-the-counter financial instruments through Dodd-Frank, the CFTC and SEC imposed legal regulation on the industries that scared most brokers away. Through keen supervision and regulations cysec, cases of fraud were reduced, leaving only the most trustworthy brokers in operation.

Suggested articles. Right now, there are only 2 regulated binary options Brokerage firms can still operate in Cyprus with licensing from CySec. BrokerNotesBe expiries of 60 second options signals show up. Only choose a broker that is January 28, Cysec binary options regulations governing Binary options how it works. Divisas opciones binarias nombres. Check out their site for amazing member benefits. Binary Mate: USA traders are allowed.

Their platform also includes In this video i tried to share my research about regulations in binary options trading and the effect of e Their superb customer support will make a Binary options strategy welcome residence with the Binary options trader, In combination with The very fact that they're certified with CySEC. The company

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I know, I know. I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great. What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just Like, fucking your cousin wrong.

Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post. That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit.

Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way. We're going to break it down like this. Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back and anyone else who needs to hear this up front - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis.

If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy.

Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle. Let's get started. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome.

One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows: Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself.

You just finished Hedging I'm adequately hedged! Spoiler alert: you're not although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below. What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy.

That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part. You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro specific exposure risks, and macro trend exposure risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.

That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too.

The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions.

The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.

Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets? A Hedging Taxonomy The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against?

Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine.

This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one. Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only.

They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. What do you mean sets of cash flows? Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.

The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts.

If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game. I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade.

Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits. Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap.

If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. That's the name of the game in hedging. There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation.

Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA dsicussed below but the confirms themselves the individual swaps are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a K, though.

For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. That's it. That sounds just like a futures contract! I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant.

I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me. Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this.

In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways. People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made or take delivery of the thing they need.

If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery. If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance.

Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances. These contracts are incredibly byzantine and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers. In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I i do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle ii do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and iii love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.

Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! To execute a basic collar also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes , you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies you can only profit up to the strike price of the call but also writes down your risk.

They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master which is a form agreement that's always the same and a Schedule which amends the Master to include your specific terms. First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position.

You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA. Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation.

These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish.

WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg.

And you write in A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking? Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt loans or bonds.

They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. They caused this! Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt.

They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular and remain so is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain.

The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama. Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now. This happens in three different ways. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price.

If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position , they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Enough technical details. I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live.

But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here. Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post. Post will drop Monday at market open. Forex option trading is that the acceptable who need higher benefits and need to shape your cash by exchanging.

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In forex choices exchanging dealers can expect a cost and timeframe over the counter steady with their arrangement and examination. The conventional call or vanilla choice inside the forex choices exchanging is that the principal type. In these choices, dealers can without much of a stretch purchase or sell such a money upheld cost and in this manner the time of your time. SPOT choices likewise called double or computerized exchanging alternatives. Fortunately, a new solution is now available to UK traders via a new United Kingdom Financial regulatory ruling.

More scrutiny from UK banks about financial transactions, even to binary optionsIn short, banks will have to take more responsibility about the financial transactions they facilitate. This new ruling should lead to the creation of a new code of conduct that will help defrauded people to have their funds recovered by their bank, unless it is proven they acted recklessly. The broad protection should kick for many online scheme and scams, whether it is fake investment companies, fraudulent binary options brokers or those scammers who promise to help you recover your stolen funds…only to steal from you once again.

On the other hands, it means the banks will be more likely to forbid transactions to legit businesses, such as reputable cryptocurrency exchanges or honest smart options platforms. The regulating bodies and financial institutions are taking a number of measures to prevent financial fraud. Binary options trading, in particular, is being controlled with a greater degree of robustness to protect the unwary general public being drawn into a situation where they suffer financial losses. Many hundreds of people around the world are targeted each day.

The individual only realizes the extent of the fraud when eventually when the fraudsters finally decide that there is no more money to be had and shut down the account and promptly vanish without trace. Spotting Fraudulent Binary Options Broker Some lawyers in the financial fraud division are very familiar with the pattern of behaviour demonstrated by the fraudulent brokers and the distress caused by their dealings with inexperienced investors.

There is a track of record of recovery in relation to financial fraud and has a number of strategies and tactics to compel the fraudulent broker or associated financial service providers to restore funds to those who have been deceived. Needless to say, the fraudsters are accomplished at hiding their tracks and frequently there are myriad inter-connected limited liability companies, often some are registered in different countries, with some dormant and some active.

It is hardly surprising if the complexity of the situation results in a failure to discover a single person who can be challenged and held accountable. However, there are various channels financial fraud lawyers use when attempting to retrieve money for clients and each avenue is investigated.

Whilst an individual may be alarmed and confused at the prospect of navigating through the complex structures that have been deliberately set up to confuse, Financial fraud lawyers are usually quite familiar with strategies fraudsters use, and frequently can steer a course to the recovery of some or all of the lost money. It is fully understandable that such a situation will leave the victim decidedly risk-averse. There have been experiences with class actions against the fraudulent brokers and has developed links with litigation funding organizations in order to offset the risk in respect of class actions.

The lessons that can be drawn from the experiences of those individuals who have had the misfortune of losing their investments to fraudsters are to be extremely cautious. Always consider every offer or investment for at least 48 hours before making a decision, a genuine broker will understand the caution that a new investor will view a proposition. All investments carry a risk and anything that promises a return on your initial investment seems to be significantly higher than normal it is almost certainly not to be trusted.

Do not allow yourself to be hurried into a decision, it is highly unlikely that an authentic broker would try to rush you into an investment, especially if you demonstrated reluctance; their reputation would suffer by such behaviour. You can now recover all money lost to bitcoin, binary options, cryptocurrency, investment, scam by hiring any one of these Verified Wealth Recovery Experts. Google Play set to ban binary options Google Play recently came out with new updates and policies for April spanning over a number of topics including hate speech, child endangerment, user produced content, fantasy sports apps, and app metadata.

However, there was never a blanket ban against those types of apps. Regulated brokers providing Binary Options trading could remain on Google Play until now. Apple, however, passed a complete ban on Binary Options apps at around the same time in its App Store. Last month, after increased pressure from various regulators Google AdWords issued a ban on all Binary Options associated ads, as part of a new controlled financial products procedure.

Additionally, Google banned all crypto and ICO ads, and in June it will demand prior advertiser certification for running ads pertaining to other types of financial trading products including Contracts for Difference CFDs and spot forex.

It comes as no surprise that Google Play is now taking similar action by instituting a blanket ban on Binary apps. Is the end of binary options? This comes as it is in the midst of enacting new laws governing leveraged and online trading. The new regulations are scheduled to come into effect across the EU later this year.

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Through keen supervision and regulations cysec, cases of fraud were reduced, leaving only the most trustworthy brokers in operation. Suggested articles. Right now, there are only 2 regulated binary options Brokerage firms can still operate in Cyprus with licensing from CySec.

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