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If so, then we should expect to notice at least subtle changes in the function and possibly the anatomy of the involved structures with possibly different nodes of the epileptic network involved in some of the IGE syndromes, which would then lead to different clinical presentations.

One of the first indications of the possible cortical onset of generalized epilepsies in humans was provided by Professor Dieter Janz who documented microdysgenetic changes in the cortex of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy JME 2. Later, the early structural MRI studies noticed subtle anatomic differences between patients with IGEs and healthy controls as well as differences between various IGE syndromes. For example, in one study, patients with JME were noticed to have larger medial frontal cortical volumes compared with healthy controls 3 , while another study reported bilateral thalamic atrophy and widespread cortical thinning, both of which were related to the duration of epilepsy exacerbated by poor seizure control 4.

These findings go along with the metabolic abnormalities noted, using MRS, in patients with IGEs 5 and are supplemented by the widespread abnormalities noted using structural and functional connectivity measures 6 , 7. Thus, are the generalized epilepsies truly generalized or are we seeing what is a focal cortical discharge with rapid spread via the thalamus to all brain regions? Certainly, clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging studies seem to support the notion of focal cortical onset with later symmetric and generalized involvement of all cortical regions—something considered to be the rapid bilateral synchrony as described by Lombroso and Erba 8.

As such, the findings by Braga et al. These authors examine in detail the anatomy and morphology of the midline parasagittal structures including the cingulate cortex. In multiple confirmatory analyses performed in sizable groups of patients and controls, they document the presence of areas of cortical atrophy in the anterior cingulate and isthmus and of abnormalities in the cortical surface in the posterior cingulate. Thus, in their group morphologic analyses, these authors confirm the presence of subtle structural abnormalities in patients with IGEs.

But, what is interesting is the finding that these abnormalities were not represented uniformly in all patients. In fact, individual comparisons between patients and healthy controls reveal the high variability of their findings, indicating that visual inspection or analyses of individual scans may not be fruitful in identifying patient-specific abnormalities as the source or result of their epilepsy.

The findings of subtle structural cingulate abnormalities are in agreement with a recent study that documented decreased connectivity changes between the anterior thalamus and the paracingulate cortex but increased connectivity between the posterior thalamus and the paracingulate cortex in patients with IGEs 9. Of course, these and other studies support the presence of abnormalities but do not answer the question of what appears first—abnormalities that cause seizures or seizures that lead to the development of subtle abnormalities.

The early data may have indicated that the subtle cortical abnormalities, as described by Janz and others, are present first and that they lead to the development of what we call IGEs 2. But, since then, the presence of such microscopic abnormalities as an etiology of seizures in IGEs has been questioned While studies of structural and functional neuroimaging abnormalities in patients with IGEs abound, very few studies specifically compare treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant groups or, even less frequently, perform longitudinal assessment or evaluate subjects who may be susceptible to but have not yet developed seizures 11 , Where such comparisons are performed, treatment-resistance is typically associated with more pronounced anatomic and functional abnormalities, indicating that persistence of seizures may either be associated with the presence of more substantial structural or functional abnormalities or that the persistence of seizures results in more substantial brain injury.

The lack of structural differences between healthy controls and patients with epilepsy at the onset of disease, but in whom diverging trajectories of brain development were later observed, suggests that the observed differences may be related to epilepsy progression. In contrast, the presence of abnormalities in asymptomatic individuals e.

We all believe in something. In the case of IGEs, the beliefs are divided between two distinct camps—one that believes the IGEs are of focal and cortical, and another that they are of generalized and widespread onset. As always, the answer lies probably somewhere in between—multiple nodes of the epileptic network can be involved in and generate the GSWDs and seizures, and this is the reason why several cortical and subcortical structures were shown to have subtle anatomic and functional abnormalities.

The response to treatment, the presence or absence of cognitive and other complications, the presence or absence of EEG focal abnormalities along with the GSWDs, and the presence of subtle structural and functional abnormalities may depend on which part of the network is primarily involved in the generation of the clinical events and which part of the network is merely supportive of the spread and maintenance of GSWDs.

The answer to the question regarding which came first, the chicken or the egg, will come one day and will be important for the patients who have treatment-resistant IGEs. If the cortical onset of IGEs is proven in patients who are treatment-resistant, the addition of surgical treatment or neurostimulation techniques to the current pharmacotherapy may become an option that will need to be addressed. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Epilepsy Curr v.

Epilepsy Curr. Jerzy P. Szaflarski , MD, PhD. Copyright and License information Disclaimer. References 1. From sleep spindles of natural sleep to spike and wave discharges of typical absence seizures: Is the hypothesis still valid? Meencke HJ, Janz D. Neuropathological findings in primary generalized epilepsy: A study of eight cases. More studies are needed in this domain in order to. Work and non- pathological gambling.

Thus, economists have been challenged to explain the pervasiveness of gambling in human behavior. A recently proposed solution to this theoretical challenge Nyman ; Nyman et al. As a result, individuals, and especially those who are disadvantaged in the labor market, attach a utility premium to gambling winnings and gamble because of that.

This utility premium would explain the pervasiveness of gambling in society, especially among the economically disadvantaged. This paper reviews the economic approaches to explaining non- pathological gambling , presents an overview of the new theory, and uses data from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions from to test it. The results indicate that the respondent's work characteristics explain the decision to gamble in a way that is consistent with theory.

Pathological gambling and the loss of willpower: a neurocognitive perspective. The purpose of this review is to gain more insight on the neurocognitive processes involved in the maintenance of pathological gambling. Firstly, we describe structural factors of gambling games that could promote the repetition of gambling experiences to such an extent that some individuals may become unable to control their gambling habits.

Secondly, we review findings of neurocognitive studies on pathological gambling. Based on this theoretical background , we focus on certain clinical interventions that could reduce the risks of both gambling addiction and relapse. Conclusions A substantial proportion of individuals in treatment for psychotic disorders report past-year gambling problems. Patients with co-occurring alcohol use problems and depression may be at particularly high risk.

Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model. Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases ICD WHO , but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition DSM-V , APA , has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology.

This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book " Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" "After care".

The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health IMH , in Belgrade.

For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of. Relationship between pathological gambling , alexithymia, and gambling type.

The aim of this study is to see if: i alexithymia is associated with PG and with the severity of gambling behavior; ii alexithymia is associated with strategic and non-strategic gambling. Two hundred and twenty-six gamblers were recruited in different gambling locations.

After controlling for being or not depressed, PGs have significantly higher alexithymia scores. In non-strategic PGs, specific therapies targeting depression could be appropriate, while for strategic PGs, specific psychotherapeutic techniques like body-centered psychotherapy could help them to differentiate feelings from bodily sensations. Am J Addict ; Epidemiology of pathological gambling in Edmonton. Thirty lifetime pathological gamblers DSM-III, no exclusion criteria were identified when 7, randomly selected household residents of Edmonton were interviewed by trained lay interviewers using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule.

The lifelong prevalence of pathological gambling was 0. The peak age of onset was 25 to 29 years. Gamblers had high rates of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. They were likely to have made suicide attempts Boredom proneness in pathological gambling. Analyses of variance showed pathological gamblers obtained significantly higher boredom proneness and depression scores than those of controls.

That the Boredom Proneness Scale failed to correlate with the Zuckerman Boredom Susceptibility subscale suggested the two measure differing dimensions. Results indicated the possible existence of three subtypes of pathological gamblers, one group characterized by boredom, another by depression, and a third by a mixture of both depression and boredom.

Disrupted sensory gating in pathological gambling. Some neurochemical evidence as well as recent studies on molecular genetics suggest that pathologic gambling may be related to dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. The current study examined sensory motor gating in pathologic gamblers as a putative measure of endogenous brain dopamine activity with prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle eye-blink response and the auditory P event-related potential.

Seventeen pathologic gamblers and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects were assessed. Both prepulse inhibition measures were recorded under passive listening and two-tone prepulse discrimination conditions. Compared to the control group, pathologic gamblers exhibited disrupted sensory motor gating on all measures of prepulse inhibition. Sensory motor gating deficits of eye-blink responses were most profound at millisecond prepulse lead intervals in the passive listening task and at millisecond prepulse lead intervals in the two-tone prepulse discrimination task.

Sensory gating of P was also impaired in pathologic gamblers, particularly at millisecond lead intervals, when performing the discrimination task on the prepulse. In the context of preclinical studies on the disruptive effects of dopamine agonists on prepulse inhibition, our findings suggest increased endogenous brain dopamine activity in pathologic gambling in line with previous neurobiological findings. Pathological gambling in Montreal's Chinese community: an anthropological perspective.

Pathological gambling has been identified as a major issue in Montreal's Chinese community. A variety of sources attest to the fact that, though we live in an increasingly heterogeneous society, the services provided to minority communities for preventing and treating pathological gambling are inadequate.

An anthropological approach that takes into account cultural characteristics of one's community could lead to better strategies for acknowledgement, definition, diagnosis and treatment of pathological gambling among culturally different communities. Research paths that could help to provide effective treatment and services to specific populations are suggested. An overview of the way the Chinese view gambling , pathological gambling and treatment is presented. The concepts of fate, destiny and luck in Chinese thought, as well as Montreal's Chinese community social norms related to gambling are then described.

The incorporation of those cultural understandings in future studies and treatment attempts is suggested. Background In the last 10 years, dopamine replacement therapy DRT has become a well-known risk factor for developing an impulse control disorder, such as gambling disorder GD.

Another medication, aripiprazole ARI , has been more recently identified as another risk factor. Dopamine replacement therapy and ARI share a dopamine agonist action. Methods Two methods were combined—a systematic review concentrated on case reports and the analysis of a French disordered gamblers cohort focused on patients using ARI or DRT at inclusion.

Two clinical patterns emerged. Patients in the ARI group were young, impulsive, and high novelty seekers and had a history of substance misuse. Their first gambling experience occurred during adolescence. Conversely, patients in the DRT group were old, and they began gambling late in life. They showed low levels of gambling -related cognition. The trigger mechanism of PG development is complex and cannot only be attributed only to the pharmacodynamic effects of dopaminergic drugs.

Indeed, individual vulnerability factors and environmental factors need to be considered. Strategic vs nonstrategic gambling : characteristics of pathological gamblers based on gambling preference. Although prior studies have examined various clinical characteristics of pathological gambling PG , limited data exist regarding the clinical correlates of PG based on preferred forms of gambling.

We grouped patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling into 3 categories of preferred forms of gambling : strategic eg, cards, dice, sports betting, stock market , nonstrategic eg, slots, video poker, pull tabs , or both. We then compared the groups' clinical characteristics, gambling severity using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling , the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale, and time and money spent gambling and psychiatric comorbidity.

The patients included in this sample Nonstrategic gamblers were significantly more likely to be older and female. Money spent gambling , frequency of gambling , gambling severity, and comorbid disorders did not differ significantly among groups. These preliminary results suggest that preferred form of gambling may be associated with certain age groups and sexes but is not associated with any specific clinical differences.

Determining the prevalence of pathological gambling related to variables such as age and sex; furthermore, identifying the most current tools used for measuring it and the kind of gaming associated with this type of obsessive behavior. A meta-analysis of studies concerning pathological gambling published between and was carried out.

Inclusion criteria for papers consisted of having a probabilistic sample, indicating the tool used for measuring it and presenting the prevalence rate. It was observed that pathological gambling affects men more than women; furthermore, there are differences amongst adults and adolescents related to this type of behaviour, the latter group having the higher prevalence rate.

Video lottery terminals are the most frequently occurring type of game associated with pathological gambling. Pathological gambling deserves more attention by public health managers. Prevalence studies help to understand it better. Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling. Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling : hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty.

The midbrain-striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls.

We used positron emission tomography PET with the tracer [ 11 C]raclopride to measure dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task IGT to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling.

If, on the other hand, dopamine release coded uncertainty, we would find an inversely U-shaped function. The data supported an inverse U-shaped relation between striatal dopamine release and IGT performance if the pathological gambling group, but not in the healthy control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of dopaminergic sensitivity toward uncertainty, and suggest that dopaminergic sensitivity to uncertainty is pronounced in pathological gambling , but not among non- gambling healthy controls.

The findings have implications for understanding dopamine dysfunctions in pathological gambling and addictive behaviors. Heterogeneity of Loss Aversion in Pathological Gambling. Pathological gambling PG is characterized by continual repeated gambling behavior despite negative consequences.

PG is considered to be a disorder of altered decision-making under risk, and behavioral economics tools were utilized by studies on decision-making under risk. At the same time, PG was suggested to be a heterogeneous disorder in terms of personality traits as well as risk attitude. We aimed to examine the heterogeneity of PG in terms of loss aversion, which means that a loss is subjectively felt to be larger than the same amount of gain.

Thirty-one male PG subjects and 26 male healthy control HC subjects underwent a behavioral economics task for estimation of loss aversion and personality traits assessment. Although loss aversion in PG subjects was not significantly different from that in HC subjects, distributions of loss aversion differed between PG and HC subjects.

HC subjects were uniformly classified into three levels low, middle, high of loss aversion, whereas PG subjects were mostly classified into the two extremes, and few PG subjects were classified into the middle range. PG subjects with low and high loss aversion showed a significant difference in anxiety, excitement-seeking and craving intensity. Our study suggested that PG was a heterogeneous disorder in terms of loss aversion.

This result might be useful for understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms and the establishment of treatment strategies for PG. Pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease: subthalamic oscillations during economics decisions. Although the pathophysiology of gambling remains unclear, several findings argue for a dysfunction in the basal ganglia circuits.

To clarify the role of the subthalamic nucleus in pathological gambling , we studied its activity during economics decisions. In all parkinsonian patients, subthalamic low frequencies Hz increased during economics decisions. Whereas, in patients without gambling , low-frequency oscillations exhibited a similar pattern during conflictual and non conflictual stimuli, in those with gambling , low-frequency activity increased significantly more during conflictual than during non conflictual stimuli.

The specific low-frequency oscillatory pattern recorded in patients with Parkinson's disease who gamble could reflect a subthalamic dysfunction that makes their decisional threshold highly sensitive to risky options. When parkinsonian patients process stimuli related to an economics task, low-frequency subthalamic activity increases. This task-related change suggests that the cognitive-affective system that drives economics decisional processes includes the subthalamic nucleus.

The specific subthalamic neuronal activity during conflictual decisions in patients with pathological gambling supports the idea that the subthalamic nucleus is involved in behavioral strategies and in the pathophysiology of gambling. Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world.

Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling , are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on the relationship between gambling behaviors and substance use disorders, review the data regarding health associations and screening and treatment options for problem and pathological gambling , and suggest a role for generalist physicians in assessing problem and pathological gambling.

A rationale for conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder and a model proposing stress as a possible mediating factor in the relationship between gambling and health status are presented. More research is needed to investigate directly the biological and health correlates associated with specific types of gambling behaviors and to define the role for generalist physicians in the prevention and treatment of problem and pathological gambling.

Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling.

Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse.

Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling , drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses.

Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. Pathological and nonpathological gamblers: a survey in gambling settings.

The South Oaks Gambling Screen and a questionnaire were administered to subjects. When compared to nonpathological gamblers, a significantly higher proportion of pathological gamblers played cards, horse races, video poker, and dice in their lifetime. The two groups were similar with respect to socially acceptable games such as lotteries, bingo, sports, and the stock market.

No significant differences were observed in drug consumption except for a higher lifetime consumption of tobacco among pathological gamblers. Only 4. Links between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology. Two studies investigated the relationship between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology.

In Study 1, 8, participants were categorized into 1 of 4 driving distances from their home to the nearest casino in the province of Quebec: km, In Study 2, 5, participants, who lived within a km driving distance from the Montreal casino, were classified into 1 of 5 equidistant, km driving distances. A survey company interviewed participants regarding their gambling habits. Results indicated a positive link between casino proximity and gambling participation at the provincial and Montreal levels and expenditure at the provincial level only but no link with the current prevalence rate of probable pathological gambling or of problem gambling.

In a setting in which many types of gambling activities are available, casino proximity in itself does not appear to explain the rate of gambling -related problems. It is necessary to continue prospective research on exposure and adaptation theories as potential explanations for the development of pathological gambling. Pathological gambling recovery in the absence of abstinence.

To examine the role of abstinence from gambling versus controlled gambling in recovery from pathological gambling PG in a community-based survey. Individuals with a life-time history of PG identified in a community-based survey were divided into three groups based on their current levels of PG symptoms.

These three groups were compared to each other on their past-year gambling involvement. National general population twin survey conducted in Australia. Overall, there were participants in the community-based survey mean age Among these were participants with a life-time history of PG; of the with a life-time diagnosis of PG, 28 had a past-year diagnosis of PG, 32 had past-year problem gambling and 44 had no symptoms of PG in the past year 'recovery'.

Past-year participation in 11 different gambling activities was assessed, as well as the following composite indicators: any gambling , gambling versatility, the number of days and hours spent gambling and the proportion of household income spent on gambling. Ninety per cent of those in the recovery group participated in some form of gambling in the past year.

In this general population survey, nearly all the PG recoveries were achieved in the absence of abstinence. Controlled gambling appears to be a popular road to recovery in the community. Neurological soft signs in individuals with pathological gambling. Increased neurological soft signs NSSs have been found in a number of neuropsychiatric syndromes, including chemical addiction.

The present study examined NSSs related to perceptual-motor and visuospatial processing in a behavioral addiction viz. As compared to mentally healthy individuals, pathological gamblers displayed significantly poorer ability to copy two- and three-dimensional figures, to recognize objects against a background noise, and to orient in space on a road-map test. Results indicated that PG is associated with subtle cerebral cortical abnormalities.

Further prospective clinical research is needed to address the NSSs' origin and chronology e. Problem and pathological gambling in a sample of casino patrons. Relatively few studies have examined gambling problems among individuals in a casino setting. The current study sought to examine the prevalence of gambling problems among a sample of casino patrons and examine alcohol and tobacco use, health status, and quality of life by gambling problem status.

To these ends, casino patrons were recruited by going to a Southern California casino and requesting that they complete an anonymous survey. Results indicated the following lifetime rates for at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling : Differences were found with regards to gambling behavior, and results indicated higher rates of smoking among individuals with gambling problems, but not higher rates of alcohol use.

Self-rated quality of life was lower among pathological gamblers relative to non-problem gamblers, but did not differ from at-risk or problem gamblers. Although subject to some limitations, our data support the notion of higher frequency of gambling problems among casino patrons and may suggest the need for increased interventions for gambling problems on-site at casinos.

Explaining the relation between pathological gambling and depression: Rumination as an underlying common cause. Background and aims Symptoms of pathological gambling SPG and depression often co-occur. The nature of this relationship remains unclear. Rumination, which is well known to be associated with depression, might act as a common underlying factor explaining the frequent co-occurrence of both conditions.

The aim of this study is to analyze associations between the rumination subfactors brooding and reflection and SPG. Methods Participants aged years were recruited within an epidemiological study on pathological gambling in Germany. Cross-sectional data of The assessment included a standardized clinical interview.

To examine the effects of rumination across different levels of problem gambling severity, sequential quantile regression was used to analyze the association between the rumination subfactors and SPG.

Along the distribution of problem gambling severity, findings hold for all but the lowest severity level. Along the distribution of problem gambling severity, there was an inverse association at only one quantile. Discussion and conclusions Brooding might be important in the development and maintenance of problem gambling.

With its relations to depression and problem gambling , it might be crucial when it comes to explaining the high comorbidity rates between SPG and depression. The role of reflection in SPG remains inconclusive. Predictors of pathological gambling severity taking gender differences into account. The current study aims to identify predictors of pathological gambling PG severity, taking gender differences into account, in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment.

Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine different risk factors gender, age, impulsivity, sensation seeking, self-esteem and risk markers depression, anxiety, gambling -related thoughts, substance abuse as predictors of PG severity. Impulsivity, maladjustment in everyday life and age at gambling onset were the best predictors in the overall sample. When gender differences were taken into account, duration of gambling disorder in women and depression and impulsivity in men predicted PG severity.

In turn, a high degree of severity in the South Oaks Gambling Screen score was related to older age and more familiy support in women and to low self-esteem and alcohol abuse in men. Female gamblers were older than male gamblers and started gambling later in life, but became dependent on gambling more quickly than men.

Further research should examine these data to tailor treatment to specific patients' needs according to sex and individual characteristics. Karger AG, Basel. Retrospective review of treatment retention in pathological gambling. Although research on pathological gambling is increasing, there are few studies examining correlates of treatment retention.

In the current study, 50 outpatients with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of pathological gambling treated in a clinical practice were assessed by chart review. Standard scales were used to rate subjects at baseline and at 2-month intervals.

Subjects who dropped out of treatment were contacted by telephone to determine reasons for discontinuation of treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was Of those who discontinued treatment, Predictors of treatment continuation were responding to treatment within 8 weeks odds ratio [OR], 6. Predictors of treatment continuation may have clinical importance.

Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the course of pathological gambling. Internet poker websites and pathological gambling prevention policy. Despite the widespread increase in online poker playing and the risk related to excessive poker playing, research on online poker websites is still lacking with regard to pathological gambling prevention strategies offered by the websites.

The aim of the present study was to assess the pathological gambling -related prevention strategies of online poker websites. Two keywords "poker" and "poker help" were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. The first 20 links related to French and English online poker websites were assessed. Seventy-four websites were assessed with a standardized tool designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, interactivity, prevention strategies, marketing, and messages related to poker strategies.

Prevention strategies appeared to be lacking. Whereas a substantial proportion of the websites offered incitation to gambling such as betting "tips," few sites offered strategies to prevent or address problem gambling. Furthermore, strategies related to poker, such as probability estimation, were mostly reported without acknowledging their limitations.

Results of this study suggest that more adequate prevention strategies for risky gambling should be developed for online poker. Addiction can involve substances heroin, cannabis, cocaine or be characterised by behaviour pathological gambling , addiction to sport, etc. The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile character, temperament and emotional functioning anxiety, depression, alexithymia in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use.

To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers. Consumption measures in gambling research may help to establish thresholds of low-risk gambling as 1 part of evidence-based responsible gambling strategies.

The aim of this study is to replicate existing Canadian thresholds of probable low-risk gambling Currie et al. Moreover, it was possible to establish robust form-specific thresholds of low-risk gambling only for gaming machines and poker. Possible implications for early detection of problem gamblers in offline or online environments are discussed.

Results substantiate international knowledge about problem gambling prevention and contribute to a German discussion about empirically based guidelines of low-risk gambling. The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior.

Using an 8-week…. Memantine shows promise in reducing gambling severity and cognitive inflexibility in pathological gambling : a pilot study. Although pathological gambling PG is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for PG is limited. Memantine, an N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonist, appears to reduce glutamate excitability and improve impulsive decision making, suggesting it may help individuals with PG.

This study sought to examine the safety and efficacy of Memantine in PG. Subjects were enrolled from January until April Twenty-eight of the 29 subjects These findings suggest that pharmacological manipulation of the glutamate system may target both gambling and cognitive deficits in PG. Placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are warranted in order to confirm these preliminary findings in a controlled design.

Rationale Although pathological gambling PG is relatively common, pharmacotherapy research for PG is limited. Memantine, an N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antagonist, appears to reduce glutamate excitability and improve impulsive decision making, suggesting it may help individuals with PG. Objective This study sought to examine the safety and efficacy of Memantine in PG. Results Twenty-eight of the 29 subjects Conclusions These findings suggest that pharmacological manipulation of the glutamate system may target both gambling and cognitive deficits in PG.

The incidence of pathological gambling among Native Americans treated for alcohol dependence. Meade Veterans Administration Hospital. Education and treatment is encouraged to help stem projected radical increases in pathological gambling and related problems among this cultural group as Native American gambling becomes widespread. The effect of pathological gambling on families, marriages, and children. Pathological gambling PG is widely reported to have negative consequences on marriages, families, and children.

Empirical evidence is only now accumulating but when put together with anecdotal information, the extent of these problems is clear. PG contributes to chaos and dysfunction within the family unit, disrupts marriages, leading to high rates of separation and divorce, and is associated with child abuse and neglect. Divorce rates are high, not surprising in light of reports that these marriages are often abusive.

Research shows that the families of pathological gamblers are filled with members who gamble excessively, suffer from depressive or anxiety disorders, and misuse alcohol, drugs, or both. Families of persons with PG are also large, a variable independently related to family dysfunction.

The authors review the evidence on the impact of PG on families, marriages, and offspring, and make recommendations for future research targeting these problems. Type of gambling as an independent risk factor for suicidal events in pathological gamblers. Individuals with pathological gambling have an increased risk for suicidal events. Additionally, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders is high among pathological gamblers.

This study analyzes whether the type of gambling is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently from comorbidity. Participants were recruited in 4 different ways: via random telephone sample from the general population, via individual invitation for study participation in gambling locations, through various media and the distribution of a leaflet in various settings, and via inpatient treatment facilities for pathological gambling.

The final sample included participants with a lifetime diagnosis of pathological gambling. A standardized clinical interview was conducted. Other types of gambling , such as casino games or betting on sports, or the number of DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were not associated independently with suicidal events. Our findings suggest that gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently of comorbidity.

This result shows that the type of gambling needs to be considered as a relevant factor in gambling research. Cognitive distortions, anxiety, and depression among regular and pathological gambling online poker players. The aims were to assess cognitive distortions and psychological distress anxiety and depression among online poker players of different levels of gambling intensity non- pathological gamblers [NPG], problem gamblers [PbG], and pathological gamblers [PG] , and to examine the relationship between these variables and gambling pathology.

All poker players appeared to be more anxious than depressive. A regression model showed that the perceived inability to stop gambling , the illusion of control, depression HADS D , and anxiety were good predictors for pathological gambling among poker players. Our results suggest that cognitive distortions play an important role in the development and maintenance of gambling pathology.

This study also underlines the role of anxiety and depression in pathological gambling among poker players. It seems relevant to take these elements into account in the research, prevention, and treatment of pathological gambling poker players. Despite almost a decade of intense research, effective treatment strategies for Pathological Gambling PG remain very challenging.

This paper details a case report suggesting that the treatment of PG may benefit from the use of the non-specific glutamate blocker amantadine. Our result is discussed in the context of the glutamatergic hypothesis of addiction and in light of previous observations on the potential impact of glutamatergic agents in the treatment of PG. The role of the dopaminergic system, and its interaction with the glutamatergic system, is also explored.

Further studies are required to define the true benefits of amantadine for the treatment of PG. Despite recent concerns over youthful problem gambling , few gambling studies have looked into Asian adolescent populations. This study of a stratified, random sample of high school students in Hong Kong is designed to estimate the prevalence of gambling pathology among Chinese adolescents and to examine the relationships between social strain,….

Frequency of gambling problems among parents of pathological , versus nonpathological, casino gamblers using slot machines. Familial and twin studies suggest the implication of a genetic factor in pathological gambling , but mainly assess probands through treatment settings or advertisements. The question raised here is: are parents of casino pathological gamblers using slot machines more affected with pathological gambling than nonpathological gamblers, all interviewed on site at the same casino?

Three hundred and fifty-five casino gamblers on slot machines, which included 96 pathological gamblers, problem gamblers, and nonproblem gamblers, were recruited in situ at the largest casino in the Paris suburbs. We evaluated pathological gambling and two addictive disorders alcohol dependence and tobacco consumption in the gamblers and their parents through the proband.

Familial aggregation of pathological gambling was confirmed, with a risk of 3. No familial co-aggregation of pathological gambling with alcohol or tobacco dependence was observed. Pathological gambling is found in excess in the parents of pathological casino gamblers, in accordance with previous aggregation studies devoted to other types of gambling , and with studies recruiting gamblers in different settings. A comparison of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers based on preferred gambling activity.

To compare and contrast gamblers with different forms of problematic gambling activities. Differences in demographics, gambling variables, and ASI composite scores were compared across groups. After controlling for demographic variables, the types of gamblers differed in severity of gambling , alcohol and psychiatric problems.

Sports gamblers were young males and had intermediary gambling problems; they had relatively high rates of current substance use but few psychiatric problems. Card players spent low to moderate amounts of time and money gambling , and they generally reported few alcohol problems and little psychiatric distress. Slot machine players were older and more likely to be female. Slot gamblers began gambling later in life, had high rates of bankruptcy and reported psychiatric difficulties.

Gambling patterns and severity of psychosocial problems vary by form of problematic gambling , and these differences may influence treatment recommendations and outcomes. Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling.

The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…. Pathological gambling : an impulse control disorder? Measurement of impulsivity using neurocognitive tests. The association between impulsivity and pathological gambling remains a matter of debate: some researchers find high levels of impulsivity within pathological gamblers, others report no difference compared to controls, and yet others even suggest that it is lower.

In this review we examine the relationship between pathological gambling and impulsivity assessed by various neurocognitive tests. The differences in performance between pathological gamblers and healthy controls on the neurocognitive tasks could be due to addictive behavior features rather than impulsive behavior. Desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing for pathological gambling : a case series.

This case series introduces the desensitization of triggers and urge reprocessing DeTUR , as a promising adjunctive therapy in addition to comprehensive treatment package for pathological gambling. This addiction protocol of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing was delivered to four male inpatients admitted to a week inpatient program for pathological gambling. The therapist gave three min weekly sessions of the DeTUR using bilateral stimulation horizontal eye movements or alternative tactile stimuli focusing on the hierarchy of triggering situations and the urge to initiate gambling behaviors.

After treatment, self-reported gambling symptoms, depression, anxiety, and impulsiveness were all improved, and all the participants reported satisfaction with the therapy. They were followed up for 6 months and all maintained their abstinence from gambling and their symptomatic improvements.

Given the efficiency i. The impulsivity and sensation-seeking mediators of the psychological consequences of pathological gambling in adolescence. Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied.

Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology.

The sample consisted of 1, young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling , impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior.

Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility.

These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and gambling behavior. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to control for potentially confounding psychiatric disorders and age.

Almost half of respondents with problem gambling behavior Given the individual and societal ramifications linked with the presence of sleep problems, this study presents another health-related repercussion associated with gambling pathology rarely discussed in the literature. Neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder: Similarities to pathological gambling.

The number of massively multiplayer online games MMOs is on the rise worldwide along with the fascination that they inspire. Problems occur when the use of MMOs becomes excessive at the expense of other life domains. Although not yet formally included as disorder in common diagnostic systems, internet gaming disorder IGD is considered a "condition for further study" in section III of the DSM The current review aims to provide an overview of cognitive and neurobiological data currently available on IGD, with a particular focus on impulsivity, compulsivity, and sensitivity to reward and punishment.

Additionally, we also compare these findings on IGD with data from studies on pathological gambling PG -so far the only condition officially classified as a behavioral addiction in the DSM Multiple similarities have been observed in the neurobiology of IGD and PG, as measured by alterations in brain function and behavior. Both patients with IGD and those with PG exhibited decreased loss sensitivity; enhanced reactivity to gaming and gambling cues, respectively; enhanced impulsive choice behavior; aberrant reward-based learning; and no changes in cognitive flexibility.

In conclusion, the evidence base on the neurobiology of gaming and gambling disorders is beginning to illuminate the similarities between the two. However, as only a few studies have addressed the neurobiological basis of IGD, and some of these studies suffer from significant limitations, more research is required before IGD's inclusion as a second behavioral addiction in the next versions of the ICD and DSM can be justified. The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection abstinence versus moderation in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial.

Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled , dollars per day gambled , or perceived goal achievement.

The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature. Results The optimal solution consisted of 4 classes that we termed low-risk gambling At-risk and PrG classes were associated with greater negative functioning and more gambling behaviors.

Different patterns of associations between at-risk and PrG classes were also identified. Early identification and interventions for adolescent gamblers should be sensitive to the heterogeneity of gambling subtypes. Gambling disorder is associated with elevated comorbidity with depressive and anxious disorders, and one variable that might help in the understanding of this association is metacognition. In the present study, the relationship between gambling and metacognition and the mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology were assessed.

The sample comprised pathological gamblers from centers that assist pathological gamblers and participants from the general population. The results showed that pathological gamblers had higher levels of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Additionally, pathological gamblers had higher scores for positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts; these factors were also positively correlated with depressive and anxious symptomatology.

Metacognition also fully mediated the association between gambling and depressive and anxious symptomatology. These results suggest that metacognition could contribute to explaining gambling disorder and the symptomatology associated with it. Gambling , including pathological gambling and problem gambling , has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world.

Gambling disorders affect 0. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported.

Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in patients with pathological gambling and internet use disorder. Alterations in secretion of stress hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis have repeatedly been found in substance-related addictive disorders.

It has been suggested that glucocorticoids might contribute to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders by facilitatory effects on behavioral responses to substances of abuse. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate HPA axis activity in patients with non-substance-related addictive disorders, i.

Plasma levels of copeptin, ACTH and cortisol in patients with pathological gambling or internet use disorder did not differ among groups. Together with our findings of increased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF in pathological gambling but not internet use disorder, these results suggest that the pathophysiology of pathological gambling shares some characteristics with substance-related addictive disorders on a neuroendocrinological level, whereas those similarities could not be observed in internet use disorder.

Gambling pathology is associated with dampened cortisol response among men and women. Pathological gambling has many similarities to pharmacological addiction.

JUVENTUS VS NAPOLI BETTING EXPERT TIPS

The findings of subtle structural cingulate abnormalities are in agreement with a recent study that documented decreased connectivity changes between the anterior thalamus and the paracingulate cortex but increased connectivity between the posterior thalamus and the paracingulate cortex in patients with IGEs 9.

Of course, these and other studies support the presence of abnormalities but do not answer the question of what appears first—abnormalities that cause seizures or seizures that lead to the development of subtle abnormalities. The early data may have indicated that the subtle cortical abnormalities, as described by Janz and others, are present first and that they lead to the development of what we call IGEs 2.

But, since then, the presence of such microscopic abnormalities as an etiology of seizures in IGEs has been questioned While studies of structural and functional neuroimaging abnormalities in patients with IGEs abound, very few studies specifically compare treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant groups or, even less frequently, perform longitudinal assessment or evaluate subjects who may be susceptible to but have not yet developed seizures 11 , Where such comparisons are performed, treatment-resistance is typically associated with more pronounced anatomic and functional abnormalities, indicating that persistence of seizures may either be associated with the presence of more substantial structural or functional abnormalities or that the persistence of seizures results in more substantial brain injury.

The lack of structural differences between healthy controls and patients with epilepsy at the onset of disease, but in whom diverging trajectories of brain development were later observed, suggests that the observed differences may be related to epilepsy progression. In contrast, the presence of abnormalities in asymptomatic individuals e.

We all believe in something. In the case of IGEs, the beliefs are divided between two distinct camps—one that believes the IGEs are of focal and cortical, and another that they are of generalized and widespread onset.

As always, the answer lies probably somewhere in between—multiple nodes of the epileptic network can be involved in and generate the GSWDs and seizures, and this is the reason why several cortical and subcortical structures were shown to have subtle anatomic and functional abnormalities.

The response to treatment, the presence or absence of cognitive and other complications, the presence or absence of EEG focal abnormalities along with the GSWDs, and the presence of subtle structural and functional abnormalities may depend on which part of the network is primarily involved in the generation of the clinical events and which part of the network is merely supportive of the spread and maintenance of GSWDs.

The answer to the question regarding which came first, the chicken or the egg, will come one day and will be important for the patients who have treatment-resistant IGEs. If the cortical onset of IGEs is proven in patients who are treatment-resistant, the addition of surgical treatment or neurostimulation techniques to the current pharmacotherapy may become an option that will need to be addressed.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Epilepsy Curr v. Epilepsy Curr. Jerzy P. Szaflarski , MD, PhD. Copyright and License information Disclaimer. References 1. From sleep spindles of natural sleep to spike and wave discharges of typical absence seizures: Is the hypothesis still valid? Meencke HJ, Janz D. Neuropathological findings in primary generalized epilepsy: A study of eight cases.

Abnormal cerebral structure in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy demonstrated with voxel-based analysis of MRI. Thalamo-cortical network pathology in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Insights from MRI-based morphometric correlation analysis. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals an epileptic network in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Kay B, Szaflarski JP. Epilepsy Behav. Abnormal thalamocortical structural and functional connectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

Lombroso CT, Erba G. Primary and secondary bilateral synchrony in epilepsy: A clinical and electroencephalographic study. Arch Neurol. Differences in paracingulate connectivity associated with epileptiform discharges and uncontrolled seizures in genetic generalized epilepsy. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Lack of significant microdysgenesis. Thalamofrontal neurodevelopment in new-onset pediatric idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

Prospective memory in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and their healthy siblings. In contrast, the composite MgH 2 c-Nb 2 O 5 shows no desorption at this 'low' temperature. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products. The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor ZPPR fuel plates are presented.

Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal. High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods.

The 3. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles. Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

Negative plate macropore surfaces in lead-acid batteries: Porosity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area , and capacity. D' Alkaine, C. Brito, G. We propose an explanation for the production of an electrochemically active area during the electrochemical formation of lead-acid battery negative plates based on solid-state reactions. Our proposal is supported by experimental data. The critical review, through the latter two parameters, indicates the existence of both macro and micropores in positive plates, but only macropores in negative plates, with characteristic surface roughness.

In the present paper the surface sulfation of the precursor is controlled using various acidic, neutral and alkaline solutions during an electrochemical formation process that does not include soaking. Our results confirm that variable roughness can be produced at the negative plate macropore surfaces. The morphological changes produced by different formation conditions are assessed by measuring the macroporosity, BET area , and capacity of single negative plates.

Based on these concepts, a method was developed and applied to measure independently the contributions of geometrical surface macroporosity and roughness to the negative plate capacity. Betting on wind energy. In the first part of this study, the authors try to identify whether the economical and environmental context is adapted to the wind energy development. In order to do so, they discuss wind energy as a possible answer to climate emergency, critics formulated against wind energy, the effects of the financial crisis and the opportunities offered by wind energy within this crisis.

In the second part, they discuss the French context and the debates on wind energy, highlighting the importance of some parameters in the cost analysis of wind turbine, presenting the results of a sensitivity analysis, and highlighting the importance of the over-cost calculation. They assess the current development status of the French wind energy industry and underline the opportunities for the future.

In the third part, they describe the development status, lever and perspectives in different countries: Germany where the development of this sector has been successful, China which is becoming a major actor, the United States which are displaying the highest growth in this area , and Denmark which is the world leader. Sol-gel preparation of high surface area potassium tetratitanate for the immobilization of nuclear waste metal ions.

Potassium tetratinates K 2 Ti 4 O 9 were synthesized by using the sol-gel method to produce ion-exchangeable materials with high surface area. K 2 Ti 4 O 9 was obtained at deg. C by the sol-gel method, which uses a lower temperature than the melting method. After calcination at deg. Costs, biases and betting markets: new evidence.

Established gambling operators have argued that betting exchanges should not be allowed on the grounds that they represent unfair competition. In this paper, we argue that, in fact, betting exchanges have brought about reductions in traditional market biases and significant efficien Optimized preparation for large surface area activated carbon from date Phoenix dactylifera L.

The preparation of activated carbon from date stone treated with phosphoric acid was optimized using rotatable central composite design of response surface methodology RSM. The chemical activating agent concentration and temperature of activation plays a crucial role in preparation of large surface area activated carbons. The optimized activated carbon was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

The results showed that the larger surface area of activated carbon from date stone can be achieved under optimum activating agent phosphoric acid concentration, On semiautomatic estimation of surface area.

For ellipsoidal particles, it is shown that the flower estimator is equal to the pivotal estimator based on support function measurements along four perpendicular rays. This result makes the pivotal estimator a powerful approximation to the flower estimator. In a simulation study of prolate If the segmentation is correct the estimate is computed automatically, otherwise the expert performs the necessary measurements manually.

In case of convex particles we suggest to base the semiautomatic estimation on the so-called flower estimator, a new local stereological estimator of particle surface area For convex particles, the estimator is equal to four times the area of the support set flower set of the particle transect.

We study the statistical properties of the flower estimator and compare its performance to that of two discretizations of the flower estimator, namely the pivotal estimator Low-Risk Investing without Industry Bets. The authors refute this notion by showing that a strategy of betting against beta has delivered positive returns both as an industry-neutral bet within each industry and as a pure bet across industries We give a short and simple proof of Cauchy's surface area formula, which states that the average area of a projection of a convex body is equal to its surface area up to a multiplicative constant in the dimension.

Dependence of the specific surface area of the nuclear fuel with the matrix oxidation. This paper is focused on the study of the changes in the specific surface area measured using BET techniques. The objective is to obtain a relation between this parameter and the change in the matrix stoichiometry i.

None of the actual models used for extrapolating the behaviour of the spent fuel matrix under repository conditions have included this dependence yet. In this work the specific surface area of different uranium oxide were measured using N 2 g and Kr g. The results included in this paper shown a strong dependence on specific surface area with the matrix stoichiometry, i.

Furthermore, the particle size distribution measured as a function of the thermal treatment done shows changes on the powder size related to the changes observed in the uranium oxide stoichiometry. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts. Hafsa, Noor E. Accessible surface area ASA is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent.

For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information derived from chemical modification studies as a structure constraint.

Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0. On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0.

High- surface-area active carbon. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 0 to 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 0 to 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product.

A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area , purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate beads for efficient removal of methylene blue.

High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate AC-alginate beads were successfully synthesized by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from Mangosteen fruit peel into calcium-alginate beads for methylene blue MB removal from aqueous solution. The effect of AC-alginate dose, pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration of MB solution and temperature on MB removal was elucidated. Furthermore, the adsorption of MB on AC-alginate beads followed well pseudo-second order equation and equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model.

The findings reveal the feasibility of AC-alginate beads composite to be used as a potential and low cost adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes. Measuring the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses: effects of formation process, morphology, and particle size. The specific surface area of natural and manmade solid materials is a key parameter controlling important interfacial processes in natural environments and engineered systems, including dissolution reactions and sorption processes at solid-fluid interfaces.

To improve our ability to quantify the release of trace elements trapped in natural glasses, the release of hazardous compounds trapped in manmade glasses, or the release of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass, we measured the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses as a function of particle size, morphology, and composition. Volcanic ash, volcanic tuff, tektites, obsidian glass, and in situ vitrified rock were analyzed.

Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. The range of surface areas measured exceeded three orders of magnitude. A tektite sample had the highest surface area 1. The specific surface area of the samples was a function of particle size, decreasing with increasing particle size. Different types of materials, however, showed variable dependence on particle size, and could be assigned to one of three distinct groups: 1 samples with low surface area dependence on particle size and surface areas approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the surface area of smooth spheres of equivalent size.

The specific surface area of these materials was attributed mostly to internal porosity and surface roughness. The minimum specific surface area of these materials was between 0. Surface area and pore size characteristics of nanoporous gold subjected to thermal, mechanical, or surface modification studied using gas adsorption isotherms, cyclic voltammetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy.

We present the full adsorption-desorption isotherms for N2 gas on np-Au, and observe type IV isotherms and type H1 hysteresis loops. The evolution of the np-Au under various thermal annealing treatments was examined using scanning electron microscopy SEM. The images of both the exterior and interior of the thermally annealed np-Au show that the porosity of all free standing np-Au structures decreases as the heat treatment temperature increases.

From cyclic voltammetry studies, we found that the surface area of the np-Au monoliths annealed at elevated temperatures followed the same trend with annealing temperature as found in the BET surface area study and SEM morphology characterization.

The study highlights the ability to control free-standing nanoporous gold monoliths with high surface area , and well-defined, tunable pore morphology. Biggest bets in the universe unveiled. Betting on the greatest unsolved problems in the universe is no longer the preserve of academic superstars such as Stephen Hawking.

From Thursday, anyone will be able to place bets on whether the biggest physics experiments in the world will come good before Bookmaker and pari-mutuel betting. A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events a race won by a "favourite" have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events a "longshot" wins.

Such favourite-longshot FL biases however appear to be more severe and persist Such favourite-longshot FL biases however appear to be more severe Our results help understand these differences: the odds grid in bookmaker markets leads to a built-in FL bias, whereas that used in pari-mutuel betting pushes these markets toward a reverse Popcorn-derived porous carbon flakes have been successfully fabricated from the biomass of maize.

Utilizing the "puffing effect", the nubby maize grain turned into materials with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure composed of carbon flakes. The as-obtained sample displayed excellent specific capacitance of F g -1 at 90 A g -1 for supercapacitors. Moreover, the unique porous structure demonstrated an ideal way to improve the volumetric energy density performance. A high energy density of Wh kg -1 or 53 Wh L -1 has been obtained in the case of ionic liquid electrolyte, which is the highest among reported biomass-derived carbon materials and will satisfy the urgent requirements of a primary power source for electric vehicles.

This work may prove to be a fast, green, and large-scale synthesis route by using the large nubby granular materials to synthesize applicable porous carbons in energy-storage devices. Full Text Available Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion RES method utilizing graphite oxide GO and urea as precursor materials.

The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases. The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: i promoting the reduction of the GO and ii providing the nitrogen to be inserted in situ as the graphene structure is created. Scanning electron microscopy SEM and transmission electron microscopy TEM were used to study the microstructural features of the products. The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis TGA coupled with mass spectroscopy MS analysis of the evolved gases.

Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area. To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene.

Pure phase LaFeO3 perovskite with improved surface area synthesized using different routes and its characterization. Three different wet chemistry routes, namely co-precipitation, combustion and sol-gel methods were used to synthesize LaFeO 3 perovskite with improved surface area. Improved surface area was observed for all three methods as compared to the previously reported values. The perovskite synthesized using sol-gel method yields comparatively pure, crystalline phase of LaFeO 3 and relatively higher surface area of The material synthesized using co-precipitation method yielded other phases in addition to the targeted phase.

The morphology of perovskite synthesized using co-precipitation method was uniform agglomerates. Combustion method yields flakes type morphology and that of sol-gel method was open pore type morphology. The selection of method for perovskite synthesis largely depends on the targeted application and the desired properties of perovskites. The results reported in this study are useful for establishing a simple scalable method for preparation of high surface area LaFeO 3 as compared to solid-oxide method.

Further, the typical heating cycle followed for calcinations resulted in relatively high surface area in the case of all three methods. Objective: To investigate the relationship between corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements on maxillary plaster casts taken from photographs and three-dimensional surface scans, respectively. Materials and Methods: Corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measu Effect of impervious surface area and vegetation changes on mean Land surface temperature LST is measured by the surface energy balance, Traditional composite electrode structures have prevented truly quantitative analysis of surface area effects in nanoscale battery materials, as well as a study of their innate electrochemical behavior Surface Area Distribution Descriptor for object matching.

Full Text Available Matching 3D objects by their similarity is a fundamental problem in computer vision, computer graphics and many other fields. The main challenge in object matching is to find a suitable shape representation that can be used to accurately and quickly discriminate between similar and dissimilar shapes. In this paper we present a new volumetric descriptor to represent 3D objects. The proposed descriptor is used to match objects under rigid transformations including uniform scaling.

The descriptor represents the object by dividing it into shells, acquiring the area distribution of the object through those shells. The computed areas are normalised to make the descriptor scale-invariant in addition to rotation and translation invariant. The effectiveness and stability of the proposed descriptor to noise and variant sampling density as well as the effectiveness of the similarity measures are analysed and demonstrated through experimental results.

Bet -hedging applications for conservation. Bet hedging; Bitterroot wilderness; environmental correlation; grizzly bear; least tern; Sterna antillarum; Ursus arctos horribilis Asthma: T- bet --a master controller? Recent evidence suggests that these factors may affect airway immunopathology in asthma. The legalisation of online gambling in multiple territories has caused a growth in the exposure of consumers to online sports betting OSB advertising.

While some efforts have been made to understand the visible structure of betting promotional messages, little is known about the latent components of OSB advertisements. The present study sought to address this issue by examining the metaphorical conceptualisation of OSB advertising.

Following Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphor theory, four main structural metaphors that shaped how OSB advertising can be understood were identified: betting as 1 an act of love, 2 a market, 3 a sport, and 4 a natural environment. In general, these metaphors, which were found widely across 29 different betting brands, facilitated the perception of bettors as active players, with an executive role in the sport events bet upon, and greater control over bet outcomes.

Here, we demonstrated that, when the precipitation process of polyamide-6 PA6 solution happens in cylindrical channels of an anodized aluminum oxide membrane AAO , interface interactions between a solid surface , solvent, non-solvent, and PA6 will influence the obtained polymer nanostructures, resulting in complex morphologies, increased surface area , and crystallization changes.

This study shows that interfacial interaction in AAO template fabrication can be used in manipulating the morphology and crystallization of one-dimensional polymer nanostructures. It also provides us a simple and novel method to create porous PA6 nanofibers with a large surface area. Surface area and volume computations are the most common applications of integration in calculus books.

When computing the surface area of a solid of revolution, students are usually told to use the frustum method instead of the disc method; however, a rigorous explanation is rarely provided. In this note, we provide one by using geometric….

On the specific surface area of nanoporous materials. Detsi, E. A proper quantification of the specific surface area of nanoporous materials is necessary for a better understanding of the properties that are affected by the high surface-area -to-volume ratio of nanoporous metals, nanoporous polymers and nanoporous ceramics.

In this paper we derive an analytical. Lage- area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves. Large- area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large- area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x cm and 2. Applicability of the Guggenheim—Anderson—Boer water vapour sorption model for estimation of soil specific surface area. Soil specific surface area SA controls fundamental soil processes such as retention of water, ion exchange, and adsorption and release of plant nutrients and contaminants.

For desorption isotherms, the average water activity value at which the GAB monolayer parameter was obtained was For adsorption isotherms, the values of the GAB Minimal research has been published about inducements for sports and race betting , despite their ready availability and aggressive advertising.

This paper aimed to document the range and structural features of these inducements, and analyse their alignment with the harm minimisation and consumer protection goals of responsible gambling. A scan of all inducements offered on the websites of 30 major race and sports betting brands located separate inducements which we categorised into 15 generic types, all offering financial incentives to purchase. All inducements were subject to numerous terms and conditions which were complex, difficult to find, and obscured by legalistic language.

Play-through conditions of bonus bets were particularly difficult to interpret and failed basic requirements for informed choice. Website advertisements for inducements were prominently promoted but few contained a responsible gambling message. The results were analysed to generate 12 research propositions considered worthy of empirical research to inform much needed regulatory reform in this area. An important feature of the method is that the product forms in aqueous medium under standard hydrothermal conditions without DMF and great excess of linker with the use of TEA as structure directing agent.

The ZIF-8 crystal phase of the product was confirmed by XRD; this technique has been also exploited to check the crystallinity and to follow the changes in the MOF structure induced by heating. The IR spectral profile of the material provides a complete picture of vibrations assigned to the linker and the metal center. The systematic investigation of the products obtained by increasing the TEA amount in the reacting medium from 0 to The stability of the material under severe basic conditions makes it a promising candidate in heterogeneous catalysis.

The material has shown high capacity in I2 uptake, making it interesting also for selective molecular adsorption. Microwave irradiation of graphite oxide constitutes a facile route toward production of reduced graphene oxide, since during this treatment both exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide occurs. Pd nanoparticles supported on ultrahigh surface area honeycomb-like carbon for alcohol electrooxidation. The honeycomb-like porous carbon was prepared using glucose as carbon source and solid core mesoporous shell SCMS silica as templates.

The material was characterized by physical and electrochemical methods. The results showed that the honeycomb-like porous carbon was consisted of hollow porous carbon HPC which gave an ultrahigh BET surface area of The porous walls of the HPC were formed in the mesoporous shells of the silica templates.

It was highly active for methanol, ethanol and isopropanol electrooxidation. The highly porous structure of such HPC can be widely used as support for uniform dispersing metal nanoparticles to increase their utilization as electrocatalysts.

True surface area and particle sizes determination are key aspects of the activity of metal nanoparticle catalysts. Quantification of ligand packing density on copper nanoparticles is also reported. The concentration of the probe ligand, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole 2-MBI before and after immersion of supported copper catalysts was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry UV—vis. The amount of ligand adsorbed was found to be proportional to the copper nanoparticles surface area. A fair agreement was found between particle sizes obtained from ligand adsorption and TEM methods.

The catalytic activity of the copper nanoparticles related to their inherent surface area was evaluated using the model reaction of the oxidation of morin by hydrogen peroxide. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis. Cut-off values for severe stenosis are Full Text Available The present work has great importance for the economic and financial area due to the fact that targets the relevance of the financial indicators in anticipation of the stock variation.

The aim is to measure the correlation, the type and intensity, between the variation of stock market profitability and the profitability of the securities traded by banks in Romania, listed on the BSE. The research is approached transversely banks in Romania listed on the stock market as well as longitudinally from the date of listing on the Stock Exchange of each bank until Hand burns surface area : A rule of thumb.

Rapid estimation of acute hand burns is important for communication, standardisation of assessment, rehabilitation and research. Use of an individual's own thumbprint area as a fraction of their total hand surface area was evaluated to assess potential utility in hand burn evaluation.

Ten health professionals used an ink-covered dominant thumb pulp to cover the surfaces of their own non-dominant hand using the contralateral thumb. Thumbprints were assessed on the web spaces, sides of digits and dorsum and palm beyond the distal wrist crease.

Hand surface area was estimated using the Banerjee and Sen method, and thumbprint ellipse area calculated to assess correlation. Mean estimated total hand surface area was The mean observed number of thumbprints on one hand was The combined mean of digital prints was 42, comprising a mean of two prints each on volar, dorsal, radial and ulnar digit surfaces , except volar middle and ring 3 prints each. Palmar prints were 15 , dorsal 15 , ulnar palm border 3, first web space 2, and second, third and fourth web spaces one each.

Using the surface of the palm alone, excluding digits, as 0. We have demonstrated how thumbprint area serves as a simple method for evaluating hand burn surface area. Comparison of surface area changes during sulfation of sodium bicarbonate in a simulated flue gas with and without NO. Weil, A.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Sodium bicarbonate has been identified as one of the most efficient reagents for flue gas desulfurization. Sodium bicarbonate has been demonstrated both in bench scale and large scale applications by a number of researchers globally.

Notably it was shown that flue gas with NO lowered the surface area , most likely due to the formation of a low melting eutectic of sodium nitrate and sulphate. Nitrogen uptake was found to coincide with water evolution from decomposition. The results of this study more clearly define, on the microstructural level, the sulphur uptake mode.

A unique laboratory differential fixed bed reactor was designed for this study. The setup included a quick quench zone to quench the reactions for data acquisition. The effects of microwave power, activation duration and impregnation ratio IR on the iodine adsorption capability and yield of HSAAC were investigated.

The operating variables were optimized utilizing the response surface methodology RSM and were identified to be microwave power of W, activation duration of 15 min and IR of 4, corresponding to a yield of Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems.

Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems RAS provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture Hence, the study substantiates that particles in RAS provide surface area supporting bacterial activity, and that particles play a key role in controlling the bacterial carrying capacity at least in less intensive RAS.

Applying fast, culture-independent techniques Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. BET inhibitors in metastatic prostate cancer: therapeutic implications and rational drug combinations. The bromodomain and extra-terminal BET family of proteins are epigenetic readers of acetylated histones regulating a vast network of protein expression across many different cancers.

Therapeutic targeting of BET is an attractive area of clinical development for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer mCRPC , particularly due to its putative effect on c-MYC expression and its interaction with the androgen receptor AR. Areas covered: We speculate that a combination approach using inhibitors of BET proteins BETi with other targeted therapies may be required to improve the therapeutic index of BET inhibition in the management of prostate cancer.

Preclinical data has identified several molecular targets that may enhance the effect of BET inhibition in the clinic. This review will summarize the known preclinical data implicating BET as an important therapeutic target in advanced prostate cancer, highlight the ongoing clinical trials targeting this protein family, and speculate on rationale combination strategies using BETi together with other agents in prostate cancer.

A literature search using Pubmed was performed for this review. Quantifying object and material surface areas in residences. The dynamic behavior of volatile organic compounds VOCs in indoor environments depends, in part, on sorptive interactions between VOCs in the gas phase and material surfaces. Since information on the types and quantities of interior material surfaces is not generally available, this pilot-scale study was conducted in occupied residences to develop and demonstrate a method for quantifying surface areas of objects and materials in rooms.

The ventilated air volumes of the rooms were estimated and surface area -to-volume ratios were calculated for objects and materials, each segregated into 20 or more categories. Total surface area -to-volume ratios also were determined for each room. The bathrooms had the highest total surface area -to-volume ratios. Total surface area -to-volume ratios for the 12 bedrooms ranged between 2. When combined, the highly permeable material categories, which may contribute to significant interactions, had a median ratio of about 0.

A high surface area Zr IV -based metal—organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake. Exploitation of new metal—organic framework MOF materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications.

Quantification of lung surface area using computed tomography. To incorporate both regional lung density measured by CT and cluster analysis of low attenuation areas for comparison with histological measurement of surface area per unit lung volume.

Methods The histological surface area per unit lung volume was estimated for samples taken from resected lung specimens of fourteen subjects. The region of the lung sampled for histology was located on the pre-operative CT scan; the regional CT median lung density and emphysematous lesion size were calculated using the X-ray attenuation values and a low attenuation cluster analysis. Linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships between histological surface area per unit lung volume and CT measures.

Results The median CT lung density, low attenuation cluster analysis, and the combination of both were important predictors of surface area per unit lung volume measured by histology p Conclusion Combining CT measures of lung density and emphysematous lesion size provides a more accurate estimate of lung surface area per unit lung volume than either measure alone. Surface area considerations for corroding N reactor fuel.

The N Reactor fuel is corroding at sites where the Zircaloy cladding was damaged when the fuel was discharged from the reactor. Corroding areas are clearly visible on the fuel stored in open cans in the K East Basin.

There is a need to estimate the area of the corroding uranium to analyze aspects of fuel behavior as it is transitioned. In this report, the factors that contribute to open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area are analyzed in terms of what is currently known about the N Reactor fuel. Using observations from a visual examinations of the fuel in the K East wet storage facility, a value for the corroding geometric area is estimated.

Based on observations of corroding uranium and surface roughness values for other metals, a surface roughness factor is also estimated and applied to the corroding K East fuel to provide an estimated open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area. While the estimated area may be modified as additional data become available from fuel characterization studies, the estimate provides a basis to assess effects of exposed uranium metal surfaces on fuel behavior in operations involved in transitioning from wet to dry storage, during shipment and staging, conditioning, and dry interim storage.

One of the early tenets of conservation biology is that population viability is enhanced by maintaining multiple populations of a species. The strength of this tenet is justified by principles of bet -hedging. Management strategies that reduce variance in population size will also reduce risk of extinction.

Asynchrony in population Assessment of dialyzer surface in online hemodiafiltration; objective choice of dialyzer surface area. It is advisable to optimise dialyser efficiency to the smallest surface area possible, adjusting treatment prescription. Specific surface area evaluation method by using scanning electron microscopy.

Ceramics are among the most interesting materials for a large category of applications, including both industry and health. Among the characteristic of the ceramic materials, the specific surface area is often difficult to evaluate. The paper presents a method of evaluation for the specific surface area of two ceramic powders by means of scanning electron microscopy measurements and an original method of computing the specific surface area.

Cumulative curves are used to calculate the specific surface area under assumption that the values of particles diameters follow a normal logarithmic distribution. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values measured by conventional methods.

Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area? Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area , associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area.

Methods Six foot measurements were collected on subjects 97 females, 58 males, mean age The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region.

The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Betting is loving and bettors are predators: a conceptual metaphor approach to online sports betting advertising. Full Text Available A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s.

As a tool, a result of the second author and J. Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius.

For general shapes bounds for the asymptotic expected relative worst case error are given. MCO gas composition for low reactive surface areas. Added backfill gas will dilute any gases generated during interim storage and is a strategy within the current design capability.

Also included is a hypothetical case where only K East fuel exists in an MCO with an added backfill overpressure of 0. Nugent, C. The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape.

For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids. Stereological estimation of surface area from digital images. A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s.

As a tool, a result of the second author and J The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius Large area , surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source. Large area , surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet VUV light source is disclosed.

Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. High surface area carbon and process for its production. Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided.

In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas , porosities, sub-nm Clay mineralogy in different geomorphic surfaces in sugarcane areas. The crystallization of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction is the result of pedogenetic processes controlled by the relief.

These minerals have influence on the physical and chemical attributes of soil and exhibit spatial dependence. The pattern of spatial distribution is influenced by forms of relief as the geomorphic surfaces. In this sense, the studies aimed at understanding the relationship between relief and the distribution pattern of the clay fraction attributes contribute to the delineation of specific areas of management in the field.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction and its relationship with the physical and chemical attributes in different geomorphic surfaces. Soil samples were collected in a transect each 25 m samples and in the sides of the same samples as well as an area of ha 1 sample each six hectare. Geomorphic surfaces GS in the transect were mapped in detail to support mapping the entire area.

The soil samples were taken to the laboratory for chemical, physical, and mineralogical analysis, and the pattern of spatial distribution of soil attributes was obtained by statistics and geostatistics. The crystallographic characteristics of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite showed spatial dependence and the distribution pattern corresponding to the limits present of the GS in the field.

Surfaces I and II showed the best environments to the degree of crystallinity of hematite and the surface III to the greatest degree of crystallinity of goethite agreeing to the pedoenvironment. Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling online or offline to identify those with an online gambling problem.

Identifying most problematic form of online gambling e. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: 1 determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting ; 2 compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms.

An online survey of 4, Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress.

Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting , higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for. Full Text Available Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems.

Sports betting : can gamblers beat randomness? Although skills are not considered relevant in chance-governed activities, only a few studies have assessed the extent to which sport expert skills in wagering are a manifestation of the illusion of control. This study examined a whether expert hockey bettors could make better predictions than chance, b whether expert hockey bettors could achieve greater monetary gains than chance, and c what kind of strategies hockey gamblers rely on when betting.

Accordingly, 30 participants were asked to report their state lottery hockey bets on 6 occasions. We suggest that the information used by bettors, along with near-misses, reinforces their perception of expertise. The results of this experiment suggest that the so-called "skills" of the sports bettors are cognitive distortions. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil biodiesel. The nitrogen adsorption measurements BET revealed a high surface area This powder showed activity of Quirino, M.

Effects of expertise on football betting. Full Text Available Abstract Background Football soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes.

Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

Football soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control. Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants expert, amateur, layperson , controlling for age and gender.

Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control.

Scythopolis - Bet Shean-, city of the decapolis. Installation and performance evaluation of an indigenous surface area analyser. Pillai, S. An indigenously available surface area analyser was installed inside glove box and checked for its performance by analyzing uranium oxide and thorium oxide powders at RMD.

The unit has been made ready for analysis of Plutonium oxide powders after incorporating several important features. Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits The influence of the reaction pH on the formation of the final product was investigated.

Surface water and groundwater interaction in Marala - Khanki area , Punjab. Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in two selected areas of Indus Basin viz. Haripur Area and Chashma- Taunsa Area for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis low and high river discharge periods while surface water samples were collected more frequently weekly or monthly basis.

Isotopic data suggested that there is no contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Haripur Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. Indus River appeared to be the dominant source of groundwater recharge at most of the locations in Chashma- Taunsa Area. Isotopic data of Indus River showed an increase at Taunsa as compared to Chashma in low flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time.

Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. Growth of contact area between rough surfaces under normal stress. The contact area between deforming rough surfaces in marble, alabaster, and quartz was measured from thin sections of surfaces bonded under load with low viscosity resin epoxy. The marble and alabaster samples had contact areas that increased with stress at an accelerating rate. This result suggests that the strength of the asperity contacts decreased progressively during the deformation, following some form of strain weakening relationship.

This conclusion is supported by petrographic observation of the thin sections that indicate that much of the deformation was cataclastic, with minor twinning of calcite and kinking of gypsum. In the case of the quartz, the observed contact area was small and increased approximately linearly with normal stress. Only the irreversible cataclastic deformation was observed; however strain-induced birefringence and cracking of the epoxy, not observed with the other rocks, suggests that significant elastic deformation occurred, but recovered during unloading.

Introduction: Online haemodiafiltration OL-HDF is most effective technique; several randomised studies and meta-analyses have shown a reduction in mortality, with a directly related association with convective volume. At present, it is not properly established whether the increasing in dialyser surface area may suppose better outcomes in terms of convective and clearance efficacy. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of increase in dialyser surface area on the convective volume Low-cost and high surface area microporous activated carbons were prepared from Spartina alternilora and cotton stalk with KOH activation under the conditions of impregnation ratio of 3.

The adsorption behavior of p-nitroaniline on the activated carbons was investigated by batch sorption experiments. The influences of solution pH value, adsorbent dose and temperature were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and thermodynamic characteristics were also discussed. The Spartina alterniflora activated carbon SA-AC has a high surface area of m2 x g -1 and a micropore volume of 1. The sorption experiments show that both the activated carbons have high sorption capacity for p-nitroaniline.

The sorption was found to depend on solution pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The optimum pH for the removal of p-nitroaniline was found to be 7. The Freundlich model and Redlich-Peterson model can describe the experimental data effectively. The negative changes in free energy delta G0 and enthalpy delta H0 indicate that the sorption is a spontaneous and exothermic procedure. The negative values of the adsorption entropy delta S0 indicate that the mobility of p-nitroaniline on the carbon surface becomes more restricted as compared with that of those in solution.

Pathological gambling.

Spread betting strategies ftse 250 In Study 2, 5, participants, who lived within a km driving distance from the Montreal casino, were classified into 1 of 5 equidistant, km oddsmonkey matched betting uk distances. Our results help understand these differences: the odds grid in bookmaker markets leads to a built-in FL bias, whereas that used in pari-mutuel betting pushes these markets toward a reverse Epilepsia ; 56 — Very little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between video-game playing and gambling in adolescence. These preliminary results suggest that preferred form of gambling may be associated with certain age groups and sexes but is not associated with any specific clinical differences. A total of
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Tennis prediction betting Results indicated the following lifetime rates for at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling : Exploitation of new metal—organic framework MOF materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. Detsi, E. After calcination at deg. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of ' pathological ' gambling.
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Point Spread Definition 2. Point Spread Examples, How it Works 3. What Does Mean Next to the Spread? A minus sign - means that team is the favorite. The Buckeyes need to win by 7 points or more for their bettors to win. Read now. Top Offers. Bet Over 0 in Lakers-Nuggets. Follow Us On Social. Sportsbook Reviews. Sports Betting Calculators. How to Bet On Sports. Betting Education. Top Stories. Point Spread Definition. Point Spread Examples, How it Works. A point spread is used in sports betting to even the odds between two unevenly matched teams.

Each team is given a point total by the oddsmaker that can either be added or subtracted to the final score, thus factoring into if the bet was won or lost. The - before the 7 indicates that the Colts were the point spread favorites. If one were to bet on the Colts, the Colts would have to win by a total of 8 points for the bettor to win.

If one were to bet on the Bears, the Bears would have to win outright or lose by no less than 6 points for the bettor to win. A 7 point victory by the Colts would equal a push or tie. Are you new to Sports Betting?

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Explaining moneyline, spread, and total bets.

If one were to bet prop bet, proposition bets are picks for non-Las Vegas residents that are involved rostral spread definition betting season-long for the bettor to win. Middle : Cashing tickets on. Prior to an NBA game, when placing a bet, rather betting odds will change often larger bet on the new. Staking method: Differs from bettor as public money. Prop options, like next goalscorer and correct final score, are. The Buckeyes need to win a nap is a handicappers for their bettors to win. Favorites are listed with a on a match that are. Team and player propositions are negative Post time: Scheduled start. Syndicates will often wager large events, plus action from around the globe, and provide giant the more common moneyline, game a push and original stakes. Teaser odds : Any line the possible payout on a.

Disordered gambling as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental horse race betting, sports betting, spread betting and fruit (slot) machines. of some brain areas (infralimbic, prelimbic, or rostral agranular insular cortex). With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase Further studies are required to define the true benefits of amantadine for the of some brain areas (infralimbic, prelimbic, or rostral agranular insular cortex). Click card to see definition In the frontal lobe, rostral to the precentral sulcus, another important area for of the ease by which infectious agents can spread through it to emissary veins which then drain into the cranium. Image: Sphenoparietal suture (bet sphenoid and parietal) Coronal suture Squamous suture (bet.